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UCG typically consists of two adjacent bore holes drilled into a coal seam and pressurized oxidants such as air or steam are used for ignition of coal seam. The oxidant and the gasifying agent are fed through the injection borehole and the combustion and gasification products are recovered from the production bore hole. Injecting oxygen and steam instead of air produces the most useful product gas, since the dilution effect of nitrogen is avoided. The main constituents of the product gas are H2, CO2, CO, CH4 and steam. The proportion of these gases varies with the type of coal and the efficiency of the gasification process. UCG requires an understanding of various aspects of the selected site. The geology, hydrology, mining, drilling, exploration, chemistry and thermodynamics of the gasification reactions in the cavity are important parameters for successful operation. An exchange of knowledge between the various fields is necessary. Before starting UCG, many issues should be considered. Some of them are: 1. Exploration of the UCG site. 2. Choice of a suitable drilling technique. 3. The gasification process (air blown versus O2 blown). 4. The use of the UCG product gas. 5. Environment and safety. 6. Economics.
Designing and Setting up of UCG
India is a traditional coal country, possessing >250 billion tonnes of coal, with >60% of energy needs being met through coal-based technologies. The concerns around the potential depletion of coal reserves in the foreseeable future have been abundant in recent times, alongside the focus on the environmental impacts of coal utilization. At least 30 % of Indian coal reserves are situation at a depth > 300m below the earth’s surface. Furthermore, the ‘rank’ or quality of Indian coals is usually low, with high ash content. Thus, the economical mining and utilization of this valuable, deep, coal resource is not feasible through conventional techniques. Table: Indian coal reserves at various depths (Khadse et al., 2007) It is believed that UCG will play a unique role in enabling us to utilize these reserves. The norms & guidelines for the practice of UCG have been recently notified by the coal ministry (on July 13, 2009). It seems logical and evident that in the near future, UCG will emerge as a major clean coal utilization technology capable of providing significant impact in our country. Thus it is highly logical and justified to set up the plant in Gujarat which has abundant resources of unmineable coal available.
Risks Injury to the Human Resources(Skilled or Unskilled): During the course of construction there might be sudden or unexpected happenings that might cause injuries(due to faulty or improper use of machinery )or might even prove to be fatal for the workers, engineers, company executives or any civilian as well. Adverse Environmental Impact of The Materials Used in Construction: The materials used in construction for example the fillers used in highway might not be environment friendly and not get the approval from the environmental authorities supervising the project. Unexpected or Sudden Failure of Machines or Equipment During Construction: The machines or equipments might suddenly break down during their use in the construction of road due to improper handling or their poor quality itself. Delay In Project Due to Weather Phenomena: The project might move out of the scheduled time limit due to the changes in weather phenomena most commonly including delay due to rain.. Dixit.5 RESULTS The following results were found from the tests conducted on increasing the strength and durability of the road in the process of pavement construction: Ø The extension of highway can lead to reduction of time travel by 3 hours. Ø It lead to smooth flow of traffic . Ø Due to the increment in width of highway the accident rate can be reduced by 18%. Dixit.6 Ø Other properties such as tear propagation and resistance of the road can be encourage by using their use and promote research and development on their properties. Dixit.7 CONCLUSIONS A detailed study was carried on the extension of NH 58 and stability of the pavement which was constructed using these materials. In the study it was found that by increasing width of NH58 the time of travelling is reduced by 3hours geo material are the best suited materials for pavement construction. They lead to an increase in the stability of the pavement by strength, by environmental feasibility and endurance to vehicular loads and environmental impacts. Thus, the extension of Highways has been recommended in various states and countries where the population is large and ongoing research is being conducted to improvise the properties and durability of roads and Highways for pavement construction.
Extension Of National Highway 58
The NH 58 is one of the busiest and most travelled highway in northern India. It is only 4 lane highway. Due to which the jams take place. As a result the travelling time from Ghaziabad to MuzzafaeNagar is delayed by 4 hours regularly. So to make the travelling smooth and easier the highway should be made 6 lane highway. Due to which the time of travelling is reduced by 3 hours. The first step to a good construction process is to identity the needs of the transportation in the area and of the road. Teams must thoroughly examine the road and define the project in order to get buyoff from the appropriate officials. Make sure the project selected is going to actually enhance the roads.
GUERILLA MARKETING COCA COLA
In January 2010, The Coca-Cola Company created the “Happiness Machine” video with the help of interactive marketing agency. The video featured a Coca-Cola vending machine that dispensed a lot more than just a cold beverage. The film was shop at St. John’s University in Queens, New York, using 5 strategically placed hidden cameras. The reactions from the students were completely unscripted. The video went viral and now has over 4.5 million views on YouTube. In May 2010, it won a prestigious CLIO Gold Interactive Award. The film had the highest penetration in Brazil, Mexico, Japan and Russia. After seeing the amazing ROI on this video, Coca-Cola decided to continue the ‘Happiness’ theme by releasing several other videos using the same concept.
Maruti Suzuki cars to get six-speed gearbox
Maruti Suzuki is in the process of a complete overhaul of its image in Indiafrom being a budget family car to a high end beast model. The company has already had a change in reputation inclining towards becoming a premium brand. The introduction of cars like Maruti Suzuki Ciaz and dealership concepts like Nexa and Maruti Suzuki Arena has made their image transformation easier. It will also improve performance & fuel efficiency. Missing Piece : All of the Maruti Suzuki cars sold in India come with a five-speed transmission. The one thing that was missing from Maruti Suzuki cars was a six-speed gearbox. Preliminary reports suggest that Maruti Suzuki has confirmed six-speed gearboxes for its cars rolling out this year. Change : Any car from Maruti Suzuki Alto to Ciaz, is currently sold with a five-speed gearbox, but a six-speed unit is coming soon. It has been codenamed MF30 and will improve the performance of the cars. “Maruti is looking to shore up the use of six-speed transmissions in a gradual way. Starting with 50,000 units in the first year the demand is projected to go to 400,000 units per year by 2020”, an industry source told Money Control. The first Maruti Suzuki car to get a six-speed gearbox is expected to be the newly launched Maruti Suzuki Swift hatchback. An additional gear will enhance fuel efficiency and power delivery as well. This is, however, not the first time a Maruti Suzuki car will have a six-speed gearbox. The previous generation Maruti Suzuki S-Cross came with a 1.6-litre diesel engine paired with a six-speed unit. The new S-Cross comes with a 1.3-litre diesel engine paired with a five-speed gearbox. Competition : Another reason for Maruti to consider this move is that competition cars like Hyundai Elite i20, Tata Nexon and many others are available with a six-speed transmission. References: · http://www.financialexpress.com/auto/car-news/maruti-suzuki-cars-to-get-six-speed-gearbox-this-year-heres-what-to-expect/1097150/ · http://www.livemint.com/Industry/4CBAjbViP36JzExjGQLvQK/Maruti-Suzuki-Swift-likely-to-get-a-sixspeed-gearbox-Repor.html · https://www.cartoq.com/maruti-suzuki-swift-to-soon-get-a-6-speed-manual-gearbox-ciaz-other-cars-to-follow/
Volkswagen Will Launch One New EV Every Month From
Volkswagen's has an ambition to become a global EV giant. This has been known to the world and is nothing new. But now the German brand has revealed its mega-plan to launch a new EV every month from 2022. They has also revealed that they wants to increase their production facilities. A step in this regard is setting up of 16 new electric car production facilities. The brand is keen to launch around 300 different electric-powered models by 2030. Many of the models launched will be the electric variants of the existing models. It’s a very ambitious and well-planned strategy to become a global EV giant. Through this strategy, Volkswagen will be able to launch the bigger fleet of environment-friendly zero-emission cars and it will be a big step in becoming successful as a global EV giant. The first pure electric model from Volkswagen will be launched in 2020. This hatchback will be christened as ID, in line with the concept model. Volkswagen is investing a huge amount of Rs. 1,600 crore in powertrain development. The German auto manufacturer have claimed that its future powertrains will be built in such manner that will comply with the upcoming stringent emission norms. The brand also believes its drive towards zero emission mobility will help the automaker to also meet the new stricter emission norms easily. Volkswagen has its own reason as also the rest of the world automobile market which is thriving towards zero emission pure electric mobility. Not only that the German brand aims to become a global EV giant by 2030, but is also trying to improve its brand image that was severely affected due to the dieselgate scandal. This scandal had led the brand to face numerous lawsuits across the world and also pay hefty fine amounts to the affected customers in several countries. The automaker believes that launching a wide range of zero-emission pure electric vehicles will help the brand to come out of the darkness created by the scandal. During the conference, Müller admitted that Volkswagen’s rapid transformation and focus on EVs has been driven by the diesel scandal. He said: “The diesel scandal told us there was a need for radical change; the crisis has acted as a catalyst.” With this statement the brand has made its intentions clear that they have realised that it is time to change and a small bump in its path will not be ignored in its bid to become a global force in coming years.
TVS Apache RTR 160 Facelift
The old Apaches (160 and 180) have been doing pretty well in the market despite seeing no significant changes after that infamous facelift. But now, with the launch of new age bikes in the segment in the form of Bajaj Pulsar NS 160, Suzuki Gixxer, Honda Hornet, Yamaha FZ-S FI V 2.0, etc it is high time that TVS updated their Apache 160 and the 180. TVS Apache RTR 160 will be launched in Indian market on 14th March. The bike comes with enhanced features that will appeal further to the audience. The bike has been spotted in the country giving us a preview of the bike. It appears that the new Apache RTR 160 will draw inspiration from its bigger sibling Apache RTR 200. Apache RTR 160 facelift will be the biggest launch from the home grown brand since the launch of Apache RR 310. The two wheeler manufacturer is ready to roll out the bike now. Pricing : Expect the 2018 TVS Apache RTR 160 to be priced competitively when it hits the showrooms soon, something around Rs. 80,000 (ex-showroom, New Delhi), little closer to the current model’s pricing. Features : The bike gets a redesigned chassis and new features that add appeal to it. The 2018 TVS Apache RTR 160 comes with sharper headlamp. The headlamp featuring an integrated LED daytime running light is present in the current model. The tank scoops add sportiness to the model. The side panels have been updated to give it a more stylish appearance. Engine : It will carry the same engine, but power and torque output could be revised in the new model. Power comes from a 159.7 cc single-cylinder, air-cooled engine that is coupled with a 5-speed manual transmission. The engine is capable of churning out 15 bhp of peak power and 13 Nm of peak torque in the current model. The new version is expected to generate slightly improved power and torque output. The new Apahe RTR 160 also gets disc brakes on both the front and rear ends and it could come with an ABS as well ensuring better protection for the rider.
Range Rover Evoque Convertible To Be Launched
The long-anticipated Range Rover Evoque Convertible will be launched by Jaguar on March 27. This will be the country's first luxury compact convertible SUV. It will also be the first convertible SUV to be launched by Land Rover in India. The new Evoque Convertible will share its features with the existing Range Rover Evoque. The convertible SUV will be a two door model with a small boot, unlike the five door Range Rover Evoque. In March 2016, first spy images of the Range Rover Evoque Convertible was spotted in India. Since then the Land Rover has updated the Evoque series. It will now be getting the 2018 model. Decription : The new Range Rover model will be offered in only one variant - HSE Dynamic. It will be powered by the company's tried and tested 2.0-litre Si4 petrol engine. The 1,998 cc, four-cylinder engine is capable of churning out a 237 bhp and develops a peak torque of 340 Nm. The engine will come mated to a 9-speed automatic transmission as standard. Visually : The SUV has a lot of styling elements and will come in a two-tone orange and black shade with the A-pillars and the retractable soft-top roof coloured in black and the lower body in bright orange. It will also have adaptive Xenon headlights with LED daytime running lights, radiator grille, air intakes, bumper element, wheel arch cladding and ORVMs also gets some black treatment. The SUV will also come with the option of a stylish black alloy wheels and additional body elements. Dimensions : Evoque Convertible is slightly longer than the regular Evoque at 4,370 mm but the wheelbase remains the same at 2,660 mm. The width and height are lesser compared to the five-door model at 1,900 mm and 1,609 respectively. The boot capacity is a little over 250 litre. The Range Rover Evoque Convertible comes with an all-black cabin suitable for four, with configurable ambient interior lighting, perforated Windsor leather seats, and a 10-inch touchscreen infotainment system with voice recognition and navigation pro. Other features include - power fold, heated door mirrors with memory functionality, approach and puddle lights, rain sensing windscreen wipers, keyless entry, front parking aid, surround camera system, 12-way electric front seats with memory and more. Evoque Convertible is estimated to cost in the region of Rs 80-85 lakh.
Maruti Suzuki cars to get six-speed gearbox
Maruti Suzuki is in the process of a complete overhaul of its image in Indiafrom being a budget family car to a high end beast model. The company has already had a change in reputation inclining towards becoming a premium brand. The introduction of cars like Maruti Suzuki Ciaz and dealership concepts like Nexa and Maruti Suzuki Arena has made their image transformation easier. It will also improve performance & fuel efficiency. Missing Piece : All of the Maruti Suzuki cars sold in India come with a five-speed transmission. The one thing that was missing from Maruti Suzuki cars was a six-speed gearbox. Preliminary reports suggest that Maruti Suzuki has confirmed six-speed gearboxes for its cars rolling out this year. Change : Any car from Maruti Suzuki Alto to Ciaz, is currently sold with a five-speed gearbox, but a six-speed unit is coming soon. It has been codenamed MF30 and will improve the performance of the cars. “Maruti is looking to shore up the use of six-speed transmissions in a gradual way. Starting with 50,000 units in the first year the demand is projected to go to 400,000 units per year by 2020”, an industry source told Money Control. The first Maruti Suzuki car to get a six-speed gearbox is expected to be the newly launched Maruti Suzuki Swift hatchback. An additional gear will enhance fuel efficiency and power delivery as well. This is, however, not the first time a Maruti Suzuki car will have a six-speed gearbox. The previous generation Maruti Suzuki S-Cross came with a 1.6-litre diesel engine paired with a six-speed unit. The new S-Cross comes with a 1.3-litre diesel engine paired with a five-speed gearbox. Competition : Another reason for Maruti to consider this move is that competition cars like Hyundai Elite i20, Tata Nexon and many others are available with a six-speed transmission.
Toyota Yaris May Not Get Diesel Option
Finally we have a Toyota that can take the fight to the Honda City and the Hyundai Verna. It is not so surprising that sedan buyers are already adding it to their shortlists. However, if you happen to be waiting for a diesel-engined Yaris then you are in for a dismay as it may not happen at all. The Yaris was unveiled at Auto Expo 2018 with a 1.5-litre, 108hp, four-cylinder petrol engine. During this launch, Toyota officials chose to stay tight-lipped on the prospect of there being a diesel Yaris in the future as they face the situation of launching new products before the new BS-VI emission norms kick in. The Yaris will be offered with the option of a six-speed manual or a seven-speed (step) CVT, and will also feature some segment-firsts, such as a powered driver's seat and front parking sensors, among others. Toyota's City fighter is expected to be priced between Rs 8.4 - 13.5 lakh when it is launched in the month of May. Problem : As of now, the only small-capacity diesel Toyota offers in India is the 1.4-litre unit that does duty in the Etios twins and in the Corolla. The 1.4 isn't BS-VI-compliant, and may even be dropped from the Etios and Corolla ranges come 2020. While it is still studying the situation, Toyota is uncertain about developing a new, BS-VI-compliant engine as it would entail significant investment and drive the diesel variant's price to a point where it'd become uncompetitive. Toyota maintains that customers in the segment are, increasingly moving for petrol models over diesel models, and the overall share of the diesel variant in total sales may be far too small to justify the additional investment. It is more likely that Toyota may opt to introduce a hybrid version of the Yaris. But even that will likely be some time away.
Network Description The Adani Energy Limited formerly known as Gujarat Adani Energy Limited started over the city gas distribution in Ahmedabad, considering the requirements of the city. The main considerations were the following. · Since the gas has to be purchased from other sources, the supply chain was to be identified and the location of the suppliers near by the acceptable distance limit, ie. The location at which the AEL receives the gas from the source. · The main source for the supply was GSPL(Gujarat State Petroleum Limited). · To ensure the continuous supply of gas to the city in the required pressure. The network designed for the city gas distribution comprises of the following objects, · City Gate Station · Industrial metering or regulating station. · District regulation station(DRS) or Pressure regulating station(PRS). · Pipeline networks consisting of the Steel and MDPE. City Gate station(CGS) CGS for the whole network of is located outside the city. The main components of the CGS are · Two staged Pressure Reduction System. · Slam Shut valves. · Filtering unit. · Filtering unit is mainly installed to remove the small particles in gas to maintain the gas efficiency of 99.9%. · Piping with metering equipments (mainly orifice meters). The pressure at which the GSPL delivers gas to CGS is in the range of 28-49barg. City gate station reduces the pressure to 26barg through the stepwise pressure reduction system. The various skids in the City Gate Station includes, · Gas filtration skid · Pressure reduction skid · Flow metering skid Filtration skid The skid has been designed in such a way as to accept a single stream only. High efficiency filter separators are used for the removal of liquid and solid particles from the incoming gas stream over the entire operating range. The gas outlet from the processing industry is cautiously maintained at free of impurities, the filtration skid ensures the pure gas distributed to the line. The filter is normally designed to withstand a pressure in the range of 30-49 bar. Pressure Reduction skid. The pressure reduction skid is installed to reduce the pressure of the incoming gas from the source from the range of 30-49barg to 26barg. Flow metering skid. Flow meters are installed to for a single stream. The normal flow meters used in the CGS is orifice plates. Orifice flow meters finds its use as a large pressure drop is required. The various parameters such as temperature in the various sections of the line, pressure at the inlet and outlet joints, flow inlet and outlet are controlled by the SCADA systems in the control room. District Regulation Station (DRS) District Regulation system is a device used to reduce the pressure from 26barg to 4barg. It is the interface between the steel grid network and the medium pressure network. The location of the District Regulation Station mainly depends on the requirements of the area i.e., the type of customers to the company. Example, Group of small industries in an area and areal extent of the domestic area. The various components in the DRS include the following, · Slam shut valves for controlling the flow. · Filtering skid · Pressure reduction skid The main supplier of the DRS equipment to the company is Control Plus, Oil & Gas Solution Pvt Ltd. The inlet to the DRS is from the steel line and the outlet is also the steel line, where it is joined to the PE line using the Steel – PE converter. Odorizing unit Odorizing unit is highly essential to ensure the safe distribution of the both CNG and PNG. The odorants mainly include the mercaptans, it can be a single odorant or a mixture of 2 odorants. These odorants are injected in to the natural gas to detect leaks if any. Odorants are selected in such a way the smell of its peculiar and unique and one can identify the leakage easily, it should not alter with any of the physical and chemical properties of the natural gas. The odorant used is ethyl Mercaptan. Pipeline Network The main line is the steel grid network which is the outlet from the City Gate Station. This steel grid network is laid in such a way that it forms a ring around the whole city. The major advantages of maintaining a circular network is · To make use of looping to ensure continuous supply of gas throughout. · To avoid pressure reduction throughout the length of the pipe. The laying of the PE pipeline purely depends on the requirements forecast. This primary network of steel line connects CGS to the DRS. The nominal diameters of the steel grid lines are restricted to 12” and 8”. As said earlier, they are laid depending on the load requirement. The secondary lines are the MDPE lines which originate from the steel lines. The largest diameter of the PE line used is 125mm.