Breakdowns and laws

mobility,law of mass action and about basics of breakdown such zener and avalanche

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Late in the millennium, astrophysicists perfected the Grand Unified Field Theory, found the last scraps of "missing matter" in the universe, and proved, quite by accident that God does not exist. Or, at best, God was not a very awesome particle, one billion-billion-billionth the size of a pea, with the static electricity charge of an infinitely small sock stuck to a tiny sweater. The media reported this story with the same breathless style they used in "Salt is a Killer" in 1991 and "Salt is a Miracle Cure" in 1998. And the public reacted to the reports of God's non-existence as it had to such shocking stories as Darwin's theory of evolution or Michael Jackson's pederasty: Day 1: That can't possibly be true. Day 2: I kind of knew it all along.  The jig was up for religious leaders all over the world, and many decided to come clean. From Britain, the long-suppressed introduction to the King James Bible was released: "This is a book of instructional tales for children and the weakness of mind, and not to be taken too seriously." Israeli archaeologists confessed that the Dead Sea Scrolls were a rather crude forgery which contained such glaring anachronisms as "toothpaste," "steam engine," and "Phil Silvers." And Chinese scholars admitted that the chubby smiling Buddha began life as a corporate logo for pickled eel in the third century; he was, in effect, the Bob's Big Boy of his time.  And so the world began to accept life without God. Christians who had been searching for an excuse to skip church now had a humdinger. Jews could finally eat pork without guilt, and found it didn't taste nearly as good that way. Contrarily, millions of starving Hindus were quite happy to eat the sacred cows which had sauntered through their streets for centuries. By year's end, India's leading killer had gone from hunger to hypertension, and the cliché of the portly, red-faced Hindu was born.  All but the most fun religious holidays soon passed into obscurity. Easter: in. Lent: out. Hanukkah stayed, while Yom Kippur was replaced with Hanukkah II. Ramadan, the Moslem period of fasting, sobriety, and sexual abstinence, was shortened from twenty-eight days to twenty-eight seconds. Christmas, which had long ago been stripped of any religious meaning, was virtually unchanged.  All over the world, houses of worship lost their tax-exempt status and were forced to shut down. Mosques became banks, cathedrals were converted into multiplexes. Dozens of small churches were turned into a chain of coffee shops called "St. Arbucks." They were wildly successful in 2003, and bankrupt a year later.  In 2008, the Catholic Church had a massive going out of business sale, auctioning off all its religious art. The Last Supper now graces the lobby of Mitsubishi International in Osaka. The Sistine Chapel ceiling was moved intact to Trump's Vaticasino in Atlantic City; cigarette smoke has undone all the restoration work and it now looks worse than ever. Larry Flynt bought the Pieta, and what he's done with it is too gruesome to speculate on.  The Vatican, now stripped of its treasures, installed a water slide to attract tourists. It didn't work. As for the Pope, he became just another celebrity, famous for being famous. He had a talk show on the USA Network, he did a brandy ad, he cut a country and western album. His infomercial for a vibrating massage chair can be seen on many cable channels at three a.m. He married Linda Evans.  One thing did not happen in the post-Godworld: there was not a total moral collapse. People who didn't have sex because they were too religious, now didn't have sex because they were too ugly. A Dallas man who didn't kill his hated wife out of fear of God, now didn't kill her out of fear of the Texas Department of Corrections. In fact, he never killed her-they remained married for fifty-eight years. In the last six years of his life, the man grew demented and began to think his wife was his mother; he died more in love with her than he could possibly imagine.  And so the Godless world plugged along people who were lustier, greedier, prouder, angrier, more envious, gluttonous, and slothful-but not so much you'd notice. They were also a little happier, until July 18, 2036, when geologists taking deep core samples discovered there really was a Hell and we were all going there.
All astronauts look forward to living in the lonely and unpredictable environment of space. In low earth orbit, for instance, you get to see 16 sunrises and 16 sunsets! For the day fades into night every 45 minutes as the spacecraft rotates slowly to keep its solar panels facing the sun. Viewers in Delhi shared a bit of this excitement with Sunita Williams aboard the international Space Station, when she telechatted with them earlier this month.  Astronauts spend long periods in weightlessness of 'zero gravity'. It may be fun for us sitting in our gravity cocooned rooms and watching them on TV, as they float around. But inside their bodies things are happening that aren't any fun at all. Scientists study the effects of outer space on the human body to see how it behaves in zero gravity and then re-adapts to earth`s gravity at the end of the spaceflight. In space the number of red blood cells, bone and muscle tissues are all altered and the metabolic process upset.  On Earth, gravity pulls blood to lower body, away from the head. Nerves called the baroreceptors detect this and redirect blood flow, ensuring that the brain gets enough oxygen and sugar. In space baroreceptors don't sense any pressure difference and the astronaut flies with an atypical redistribution of blood. On earth we build bones by running or jumping. But without gravity, the bones begin to lose calcium, which is absorbed in the body. (Bedridden and paraplegics suffer the same problem, losing 30% of their lower body bone mass within months). The minerals lost from the leg and hipbones aren't excreted and they migrate to the head, making the skull dense. This is the body's way of making better use of its resources: legs are useless in space, so the body moves to protect the brain!.  Unlike on earth there is no muscle tension in space. Muscles are relaxed, stretched and actually grow by five to seven inches in a space flight. Surprisingly one gets taller while one sleeps, too, because of relaxed muscles - sometimes enough to readjust one's car's rear-view mirror in the morning. To offset this, the astronauts aboard the ISS exercise on a treadmill every day. So every space payload has a large component of medical experiments to help scientists figure out what we gain-or lose-up there.
Asteroids are rocky, metallic objects that orbit around the Sun, but are too small to be considered planets. The largest known asteroid, Ceres, has a diameter of about 1,000 kilometres. The smallest asteroids are the size of pebbles. Millions are the size of boulders. Most are irregularly shaped - only a few are large enough for gravity to have made them into spheres. About 250 asteroids in the solar system are 100 kilometres in diameter, and at least 16 have a diameter of 240 kilometres or greater. Their orbits lie in a range that stretches from Earth's orbit to beyond Saturn's orbit. Tens of thousands of asteroids exist in a belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. An asteroid that hits Earth's atmosphere is called a meteor or shooting star, because it burns and gives off a bright flash of light. Whatever does not completely burn falls to Earth as a meteorite. Between 1,000 and 10,000 tons of this material fall to Earth daily. Much is in the form of small grains of dust, but about 1,000 metallic or rocky bits fall to Earth each year. There has been much speculation about large meteors hitting the Earth. A large asteroid or comet is thought to have landed in Mexico about 65 million years ago. The impact may have led to the extinction of many species, including the dinosaurs, by throwing dust into the atmosphere, blocking the sunlight, and causing a climate change. The period of time between such a large meteor impacts is probably in the millions of years, but smaller meteors such as the one that caused the Metro's Carter in Arizona (about 1.2 kilometres in diameter), may hit the Earth every 50,000 to 100,000 years. There's no historical record of a person being killed by a meteorite. The only reported injury occurred on November 30, 1954, when an eight-pound meteorite that fell through the roof of her house bruised an Alabama woman.
Lab Manual for Frank Hertz Experiment of Physics.  Objective of the Experiment is to Perform the historic Franck‐Hertz experiment to demonstrate the existence of discrete energy levels of gas (argon) and determine the minimum excitation energy of argon.
laser and application
This knowledge describes the topic Laser which have several subparts like Elements and Technique Laser, Einstein Coefficients, Principles of Laser Action, Thrushold conditions for Laser Oscillation, Characteristics of laser beam, Methods of Switching and others.
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