Ram who have two wives
- by Priyanka Nayak ( Feb 6, 2019, 6:31 AM )
The English language has become to the Indian Subcontinent as a’ reminiscent’ and much prized reward of the British Colonial experience which spans nearly all of the ‘History of India in Becoming a Unified nation’. And it is in the same un ...See more
"The Sound And The Fury" by William Faulkner
Our lives are but a series of thoughts, thoughts that shift from past to present quite easily, and William Faulkner captures this phenomenon in his novel “The Sound And The Fury” in a remarkable fashion. About the author: William Faulkner was an American writer/poet, who started his career right after the first world war, his first novel being the “Sound And The Fury”. He was awarded the noble prize for literature in 1949 and the Pulitzer prize just before his death in July 1962. the novel: the novel is split into four parts, And it deals with the happenings within the Compson household. The first part of the book is in the perspective of Ben Compson, a mentally retarded man. The second , by Quentin Compson a 20-year-old who narrates the last day of his life as he plans to commit suicide. The third in Jason Compson who is almost a salvation to the reader's mind, for the other two are far too confusing. And finally the last part is given to us through the eyes of the negro workers at the house. The narrative style of the novel makes reading a complex process, for we see that the characters keep shifting from the past to the present that it becomes difficult to understand it in the beginning. Why read it?: when I read the novel I found the first half of the novel confusing yet intriguing, I had to let go of my reasoning ability to understand the mind of Ben and Quenitin. Where as Jason's perspective, although 'normal' becomes as complex as the other two. I felt like I had found a treasure chest and with the turn of each page I discovered new things and by the end of the fourth part,it felt like a fog had lifted up from my mind and everything about the novel had come clear to me. I would suggest to read this novel by enjoying it for every word and not try to connect the events and make sense of it all.
Epic Diction: In light of Oedipus Rex
One of the sic constituents which determine the quality of a tragedy, as explained by Aristotle- Diction stands second to plot. While the entire emphasis lays on the decree of plot yet it is equally acclaimed that the mode of effectively revealing thought, character and plot comes as a witty way of writing. Diction in the words of Aristotle means the arrangement of the verses, the kind of word selection and placement of sentences used to express an emotion. Oedipus The King is a play laiden with numerous writing techniques be it irony, symbolisms or imagery. Beginning with the very name of the eponymous hero, the careful selection of words is evident. As per the Greek script the name of Oedipus is spelt as “Oidipous” and while “Oida” means “I know” the word “dipous” is the Greek word for two footed. Throughout the play, Oedipus is found asserting his authority in the name of his exceptional “knowledge” though on the contrary he did not even know his real mother and father. He was ignorant rather blind to the truth of his own life. Oedipus learns that he was blind not to see the warnings that people have given him not to seek his identity. The use of irony shows that at the beginning he was too proud to see the truth about himself. As more and more information is being given to him he realizes that he has cursed himself and that he is the most unfortunate man in the world. “Dipous” on the other hand draws its dual meaning from two major events of Oedipus’ life. “Man” the answer of sphinx’s riddle that Oedipus gave as well as the prophesy of Teresias about Oedipus leaving the city of Thebes as a blind man “a stick tapping before him step by step” are the two peaks of Oedipus’ tragic life. It is worthy to note that Sophocles has introduced the motif of sight vs blindness which is symbolic of “pursuit of knowledge”. In another translation, Oedipus’ name in Greek translates to "swollen foot." When Oedipus was three days old, his parents received a prophecy saying that he would one day kill his father. So, they pierced and bound his feet and sent him off to be abandoned on a mountainside. Oedipus survived the incident, but was left with scars on his feet. It is here that the first instance of symbolism is visible. Oedipus’ scarred feet highlight the fact that he has been marked for suffering from the moment of his birth. This expounds upon Sophocles' idea that humans have no power in face of the gods. Although his name blatantly points attention to his scarred feet which are the keys to discovering his identity, Oedipus doesn’t realize his true identity until it’s too late. An example of symbolism also comes from the doomed king's ignorance on the key matter of his identity though he was made famous for his keen insight, by solving the riddle of the Sphinx. Oedipus thus, becomes symbolic of all of humanity, stumbling forward through a dark and unknowable universe, which may as well have been the thought of the entire play. Throughout the play Oedipus The King Sophocles uses irony. His uses of irony suppose to show the reader what kind of a person Oedipus really is. Irony thus can be cited in three main headings- Verbal Irony is illustrated in the hero’s speeches. Like: when Oedipus demands that the evil man who murdered Laius be punished, but he is unaware that he is the murderer. and Oedipus ridicules Teiresias for his blindness but Oedipus is also a sightless, witless and senseless man to the truth of his own actions. Tragic irony is shown by the character’s actions and even verbal actuations resulting in a pathetic outcome which the spectators are aware about beforehand Like: Due to the prophecy, Oedipus leaves his parents and escapes to another city. He does not know that he was an adopted son. His escape leads him to the city where his true parents resides and Oedipus does not know that he has married his own mother and has four children with her. Incest is one of the greatest crimes, so he causes the plague to happen in his city. Situational irony is the disparity between the anticipated outcome and the factual end when invigorated by dissolute fitness. It examples are situations like Oedipus is an adopted son; he hears the prophecy; so he escapes to the city of his real parents onlltoreturn back later. Also it happens that he unknowingly kills a man who happens to be his father and is persuaded to marry the queen who happens to be his own mother. Worthy of attention are the words of Oedipus that describe the aspects of his personality. Fire and water-associated with the birth of the god Dionysus-are used to suggest the "raging passion" and "cooling reason" that divide Oedipus' personality. When he acts in haste or with anger, for example, Oedipus speaks in images that suggest fire. When he pauses to consider his actions or reflect on his decisions, Oedipus speaks in images that suggest water. Due to more than a century’s worth of philosophic understanding in Hellenistic societies by the time of Oedipus, it could be assumed that Oedipus’ quick rage was a product of extreme vanity and hubris. In the tradition of the literary rule of three’s, Oedipus is given three opportunities to fall from his high horse and avoid his fate. First by the Oracle, who Oedipus antagonizes until he is forced to reveal the prophecy. Second by Jocasta, who realizes the horrid irony of their history together, and begs Oedipus not to pursue it further (1056-1062) and finally by the herdsman who left him, as a child, on Cithaeron’s slopes. However, Oedipus’ persistence and brute-determination despite these entreaties are his undoing. Thus, the audience is provided insight regarding Oedipus’ tragic flaw through thought-revealing diction on behalf of all the characters in the play.
Iliad: History or Literature
Amidst the themes observable in Book IX-XII comes the question of the historical relevance of the Iliad. Yet while it is wrong to say that Iliad is completely a book drawn out of fiction, it is even more wrong to call it solely a literary production. As is argued and believed by some modern writers, while Greek myths are largely futile and negligible, the Homeric narratives are largely historical and correct. This view is purely based on the fact that the Iliad represents the central thread of Greek tradition and it’s not violently contradicted by itself or by known facts outside it. We know that from 6th Century onwards Homer formed the staple of Greek education. Everyone knew Homer and all parts of Greece accepted him. Thus it can be easily derived that had the Homeric narratives not been true it would not have been able to survive the tides of time. Moreover, the Homeric narratives are so reasonable and possible that Homeric characters make an impression of reality. The style of the Iliad is verisimilitude meaning “having the appearance of truth” is supported by the argument that a Homeric poet would not choose a story as the Iliad of all the stories present around him had it not been incredibly truthful. All these arguments try to prove the Iliad as a historical text. Regarding validation of historical facts, we have a archaeologist named HEINRICH SCHLEIMANN , who was an advocate of the historical reality of places mentioned in Iliad. He excavated “Hissarik” which is believed to be the site of actual Troy. He excavated nine of those sites, including Mycenae. But where the Iliad fails to make an impression is the matter of topographical details. There is very less detail of the Plain of Troy that is provided by Homer. Topographical details are as much the same with rivers, mountains, plains and else that goes to make up the Homeric world strangely standardized. Even the rivers of Troy Scamander and Simois are described in vivid details but none of the details associate with its topographical location. To understand then the actual reason as to why the Iliad is prominently a literary document we can look in the Theory of the Nucleus and Nebula. Imagine an epic or a traditional book to be thematically similar to two concentric circles with different radii. So while the inner most circle would signify the Nucleus the outer circle the Nebula. Considering the Nucleus comprises of all the historical facts put in the Iliad the Nebula comprises of all the myths, literary techniques (characterization, speeches etc) etc one can thematically understand the makeup of a traditional book. But in the case of one can find that the sharp difference between the Nucleus and Nebula has been compromised such that the boundaries of both have merged with each other. It is in these “depressions” that one can find fact mixing with fiction. These “depressions” have been the prominent reason of the constant confusion of the Iliad being a historical document than a literary treasure. But one must not fail to realise that once fiction steps in the historicity of the work is highly questionable as then the original Nucleus hardly functions. In most traditional books there are fairly three components: • FICTION With respect of the Iliad, the whole frame work of the Iliad in which the incidences are fitted represents the fictional part of the epic. The Book Nine, Embassy To Achilles is the staunchest example of the same. • MYTHS AND SAGAS The role of Gods in the battle and its decisions is the example of this element. • DEFINITE HISTORY The very excavations that have lead to Troy and Mycenae have revealed findings about the Greek Civilisation are the proofs that the Iliad is historically real. So now dwelling on the belief of Aristotle about fiction- “If it does not tell you what did take place on a given occasion, it shows what might take place then”. And therefore even though the main subject of fiction is marvellous the background setting has to true and drawn from reality. “History is the study of dead language whereas literature is alive and young in its language” as noted by Mikhail Bakhtin in his essay called “Epic and Novel” stands very true as far as language of Iliad is considered filled with all imageries. A major point for Iliad not being solely a historical document is the fact that in history, every event, every phenomenon is expressed in completeness which demeans artistic representation. Also, the ‘media res’ starting of Iliad signifies the incompleteness from historical point of view. But epic (literary) completeness does not suffers even the slightest. The specific ‘impulse to end’ – How does the war end? Who wins? What will happen to Achilles?-so forth is absolutely excluded from the epic by both internal and external motifs. This specific “impulse to end” and “impulse to continue”, are only possible in history and Iliad is pretty much warded off these impulses rather, we can say there is a seal of inconclusiveness in it, characteristic to epical narrative . Thus, we have enough of evidences, both in favor of Iliad being historical as well as literary document as well and we cannot straightway classify it in a specific head exclusively. Hence, I would like to conclude by saying that basically, what Homer does in Iliad is it squeezes out some historical facts and incorporates other into its own peculiar structure ,plot, characters, reformulating and re-accentuating them.
Swami And Friends: On Cusp of Modernity
The idea of a novel is best summarised in the words of Iyengar: “In my beginning is my end to my end is my beginning”. The novel tradition in India, ever since Independence, has been used as a medium by the writers to express “the way of life of the group of people with whose psychology and background he’s most familiar”. The evident example of the same being writers like Mulk Raj Anand who painted the picture of India and presented it as if first hand. But in the same time, R.K. Narayan emerged as a writer who used the novel as medium of reflection of India but Narayan’s picture is overtly the Utopian picture of India. “He is neither an intolerant critic of Indian ways and modes nor their fanatic defender”. Narayan in his novels attempts to “explore the wayward movements of the consciousness and the thoughts and stirrings of the soul, which are recognizably autochthonous”(Iyengar). And it is thus that even after Swami undergoes the “biggest shock of his life” his childish brain gets carried away towards a tin can floating in the gutter. This way Narayan is able to maintain a sufficient distance from the “political” and “nationalist” using his “Touchstone method” and yet cater to the paradox that permeated in the lives of the Common Indian of the time. Narayan’s Malgudi is neither a village nor a typical city but a town of modest size. It is a place that “embraces all change” and yet remains the same in its core. The Sarayu river which is lavishly described as if it bears the fervour of the Ganges and the Memphis Forest on the other side of Malgudi spread as Amazon are hints that point to the fact that Malgudi is a small representation of Narayan’s India (Naipaul), which is steadily intermixing with the world. And to quote Walsh: “What happens in India happens in Malgudi and what happens in Malgudi happens everywhere”. In the early twentieth century when the common Indian struggled to find an identity amongst the tussle between the humbled traditional and the invasive modern norms of the society, it becomes imperative that “Malgudi” would encounter the same with a certain seriousness and comic element. As Ron Shepherd observes there is “an architectural duality (in the structure of Malgudi) in which modernity superimposes on tradition”. Hence in a remote town like Malgudi, which stands at a large distance from Madras, one can find the Ellaman street and Grove Street and the Abu Lane and Vinayaka Mudali Street existing simultaneously. Such blending becomes explicitly evident in the household of Swami, where three generations of Srinivasan Family emulate the three stages of transition from the traditional to the apparently modern society. Swami’s Grandmother epitomises the life of the traditional with her “faint atmosphere of cardamom and cloves”. She sleeps on a bed made of “fine carpets, bed sheets and five pillows” and narrates the stories of Harichandra to the much ignorant Swami. It is this ‘aura’ of the Grandmother that makes Swami refuse for Rajam to meet her with “brutal candour”. While Swami’s father expresses the stage of partial acceptance as he dresses for the court in a black silk coat and “turban”. As K. Chellapan opines, the socio-ethical life portrayed in Narayan’s novels are “rooted in the ageless past, of which myths are objective correlative”. Thus, while Swami and his friends look with much fascination at the toy gun in Rajam’s possession, one and all of their tussles are sorted out through simple hand to hand duels. On the other hand, while the children read about the Bible, Rajam attempts at quoting from the Vedas and Swami troubled by the supposed death of an ant “took a pinch of earth and uttered a prayer for its soul”. And to extend this understanding of the middleclass household from Swami’s House to all the houses in Malgudi won’t prove futile. But while these manifestations of modernity “overlay the earliest formation of tradition and customary life they do not necessarily replace them”. Malgudi is a town which has a railway station which stands as a direct symbol of the industrialization brought with Colonial rule but yet the 12:30 mail “glided over the embankment, booming and rattling while passing over Sarayu Bridge”. On one side of the town lie the fields and to the other the Colonial structures like Court, where Swami’s father works and the Police Station. Malgudi thus, becomes a town which is as wild as the Memphis Forest at its core- a town of peasants and herds- but equally modernised and raised to the stature of a ”near presidency”. And to personify the town Malgudi, one can imagine it to appear like the “Common Man” of R.K. Laxman (Narayan’s cartoonist brother) “who is clad in dhoti and a plaid jacket”. So while the mixed attire of the Common Man may mislead and/or misdirect to present him as a modernised figure, but it is impossible to notice the covert traditionalism he follows. Therefore, while mapping the layouts of Malgudi, it is understandable that the town dwells on a structure where “life” happens in a natural environment such that modernity seems to become more of a psychological phenomenon than physically transformational. So much so, that “citizens” seem to personify the same spirit of the town amidst these two notions of Living
Mulk Raj Anand: Indian-ness in Two Lady Ram
The English language has become to the Indian Subcontinent as a’ reminiscent’ and much prized reward of the British Colonial experience which spans nearly all of the ‘History of India in Becoming a Unified nation’. And it is in the same understanding that one cannot refuse to accept that English as a language has played a pivotal role in igniting the nationalist spirit in the minds of the Indian citizens who were divided on the basis of regional identities. Quoting from the famous essay of A. K. Ramanujan- ‘Is there an Indian Way of Thinking?’ the parable as told by Buddha and reiterated by Ramanujan in the same context goes as follows: “…Once a man was drowning in a sudden flood. Just as he was about to drown, he found a raft. He clung to it, and it carried him safely to dry land. And he was so grateful to the raft that he carried it on his back for the rest of his life”. Thus, it is agreeable that invasively so, but the English Writing has been the rescuer of the Indian Civilisation after the Partition in 1947 and ever since has become the reflection of the ‘Voice of the (New) Formed Nation’. Amongst all the writings in English the short story form enjoys a special affection amongst the members of the ‘Intelligentsia’ like Mulk Raj Anand to the modern day writers like Salman Rushdie. After all, the short story is an art form staunchly Indian in origin of which the examples are the Vedic texts like the Puranas to the epics like Mahabharata. Yet the paradox remains that Indian short story in English is but a product of Western Influences (M.K.Naik). But remarkably so, even then“English is borrowed into (or imposed on) Indian contexts” (A. K. Ramanujan) which subdues the existence of English as an alien language and makes it all the more “Indian”. And when issues concerning the Indian Nation form the core of the Writing in English the product is but an expression of the lives of the Indian common folk in a more universally read medium. Such colourful “Indianism permeates in the diction, idiom and imagery in dialogue” of Mulk Raj Anand. One of the ‘triumvirate’ in the 1930s who established the Indian English Novel, Anand has since then written eleven novels alongside many short stories that reflect on the issues that were prevalent in then India, suitably justifying the Indian English short stories as the “Breath in the Mirror”. The short story: Two Lady Rams (part of the short story collection The Tractor and the Corn Goddess) is typically what Anand defined as “highly developed form of folk tale” that included “psychological understanding of the contemporary period”. The short story comes as a social satire on the “Angrezi Sarkar of India” and highlights the tussle between the colonial subject and the colonial master. The story follows the same theme at two levels, where for one, Lalla Jhinda Ram is the colonial subject to the “department that acted on His Majesty’s Behalf” and the second are the wives, Sukhi and Sakuntala who are the colonial subjects to (the agent of the patriarchal society) i.e. Sir Jhinda. As the story unfolds one can understand the satire that stands to highlight how poorly the ‘colonial master’ governed over its subjects of whom he knew and cared the least. The apparent honour of Knighthood which is cunningly bestowed on Jhinda Ram (mark of his sly ‘sundry’ services to the Empire) and supposed to raise his social status helps to bring forth this negligence of the British State; and as for the wives the selfish decision of Lalla Jhinda to take the second wife to his investiture ceremony because otherwise she would abstain from entertaining him, shows the lack of regard and respect towards wives that were then treated as mere objects of the household. Another theme shadily addressed in the story is the tuft between on setting modernity and fading traditions. Thus even when Jhinda Ram enjoys a siesta and his mansion had an “English style gol kamara or, living room” he was acquitted to marry two wives on the grounds of Hindu Mitakshara Law and demanded for his wives to dress in a traditional sari for the Ceremony. In all, the household of Jhinda Ram was on the margins of traditional and the cusp of modern. And when the Modern (the Kinghthood) merged with the Traditional (the two wives of Sir Jhinda) (amusingly enough) the Colonial Anxiety is surfaced. It is in the same light that one can imagine the last gravely serious comment “the three staunch pillars” said with respect to Jhinda Ram and the Lady Rams as a drawing its symbolism to the state of the Indian common folk (Jhinda Ram) which struggled to obtain an identity through the modern (Sakuntala) but could not afford to lose the traditional (Sukhi) that had formed the whole truth of their survival. Another facet of the issue of Identity comes through the tussle of Sakuntala and Sukhi both of whom wish to be Lady Ram since the women of colonial India were recognised by the name of their husband, Anand comments on the lack of individual identity of women in marriage and through his female characters attempts to inspire revolution in women to fight for their ‘rights’. The Two Lady Rams runs as a comical account of the day of a shopkeeper’s life who is bestowed the highest honour in British Raj, only to add misery to his life. A misery which does not come from poverty or exploitation (as in the other short stories of Anand) but whose cause is ‘over abundance of undue credibility’. Thus, even when the story is not the whole truth yet it is derived from the truth of the lives of the ‘Indians’. In addition the story places a satire on the ‘sleeping Indian spirit’ and the so called ‘collaborators’ of the British Raj who out of selfish motives served the Colonial Master. By extension, the story therefore, comes with the hidden message of the agony involved in the service of the British than the ‘Homeland’ which came with the loss of one’s integrity and common sense which Jhinda Ram idolises when he seeks the advice of his Chauffeur.
Songs of Innocence and Experience: Blake in Englan
With the onset of the first cotton mill factory in 1760s, England witnessed a turnover in its social, economical and political structures; such that the newly established norms of the Industrial England gave way for much dissent in the group of people that lay at the base of its social pyramid. It is hence that the voice of William Blake, despite all its disparity to common day discourse, stands as a faithful witness to the congested and coagulated mass that came to be known as the “working class”. E. P. Thompson in the Preface to his book “Making of English Working Class” highlights the questionable nature of demarcating the working class as a group comprising of multiple separate subgroups – “...Working classes” is a descriptive term, which evades as much as it defines. It ties loosely together a bundle of discrete phenomena. There were tailors here and weavers there, and together they a make up the working classes.” To which he adds: ....If we stop history at a given point, then there are no classes but simply a multitude of individuals with a multitude of experiences. But if we watch these men over an adequate period of social change, we observe patterns in their relationships, their ideas, and their institutions. Class is defined by men as they live their own history, and, in the end, this is its only definition.” So, Thompson clearly establishes class as a social relationship which arises out of “similar experiences and interests”. A similar vein of understanding runs in the Blakean corpus where man is represented in four principal relationships: man and his world, man and his body, man and his fellow men, and man and his past & future. It is here that the reading of Blake’s Songs of Experience finds appropriate context. In the hands of Blake, the elements of the society - from the flowers to the people and wild nature to religious institutions - become elements which turn into symbols. Unlike the later romantic poets Blake’s writing finds its radical undertones in the ideas that it foregrounds with the face of contemporary elements. And while the careful reading of these symbols uncovers the purpose of the writing, a guarded investigation narrates a commentary of Industrial England. Perhaps no other poems than “The Human Abstract”, “Chimney Sweeper” and “London” from the Songs of Experience bear the explicit markers of the struggles of everyday life of the working class. While in “London” Blake describes the wantonly state of affairs in the heart of England where the streets and the river are “chartered” and in such political oppression in every face he meets, he identifies the “Marks of weakness, marks of woe”. In the Chimney Sweeper, Blake critiques the institution of family and the Church as the harbingers of pain which perform the function of contaminating the innocence of young “chimney sweepers”. Though “The Human Abstract” credulously critiques the social order and sums up a graphic picture of England as a place devoid of humanity – Pity would be no more If we did not make somebody poor, And Mercy no more could be If all were as happy as we. Therefore, the three poems investigate the relationships of man with his world and his fellow men but it is noticeable that the categories of relationships investigated above are born out of the hustle & bustle of the new social structure - the realities of whom retain the same form even in their contrary songs from the “Songs of Innocence”. The Chimney Sweeper in the Songs of Innocence bears the same “burden” of work and his social position demands a resolution that does not contradict his everyday reality. Thus, “Though the morning was cold, Tom was happy and warm/So, if all do their duty, they need not fear harm”. The “Divine Image” which runs a contrary of “The Human Abstract” expresses a similar vein where man becomes an embodiment of the four virtues of Love, Peace, Mercy and Pity and yet it is only through prayer that such virtues are remembered - “Then every man, of every clime/That prays in his distress/Prays to the human form divine/Love, Mercy, Pity, Peace.” Hence it is imperative to conclude that in his Songs Blake does not assume a respite for the miseries of the working class for even in the oblivious world of Innocence the harsh reality of then Present, is not reconcilable though the approach of its bearers shows drastic difference. But Blake does not merely attempt to contrast the two states of the society: Pre-Industrial Revolution and Post Industrial Revolution, but he presents the inevitability of such a movement. By satirising the state of Innocence as a “naturalistic and imaginative” existence without bearing the capability of regeneration, Blake emphasises the “organic and creative” existence of the realm of Experience. In the contrasting pair of “The Lamb” and “The Tiger”, such necessity becomes a link of association. “The Lamb” comes with an engraving of a little boy with a herd of lamb while the accompanying poem refers to the conversation between the both. On the other hand, “the Tiger” becomes a series of unanswered questions about the creation of the tiger which lead to an answer which is never iterated for the fear of its symmetry. Both the poems deal with the philosophical question of creation and the power of the creator. While in the Lamb, the creation in its form is attributed to the one who “calls Himself a Lamb”, the Tiger comments on the fearful nature of the creation but in a way that sarcastically questions the diminutive perception of the questioner. As many critics observe, the questioner of the Tiger, creates an image of the bright and burning figure as fearful for it stands in contrast to the “forest of the night”. In his Auguries of Innocence, Blake defines the night as the state after the fall, not in the Miltonic conception, but in the sense of loss of imaginative power: “We are led to believe a Lie/We see not thro the eye/Which was born in a night to perish in a night/when the soul slept in beams of light”. Therefore, the questioner in the Tiger bears the power of creative potential where he unknowingly perceives a dreadful creature in his limited perception. It is with the same relation that “the Tiger” becomes a symbol of the emerging force of the working class. At the base of the economy, the working class generated the energy which sustained the social structure, and yet the limiting means of resource, hard ways of living which were crystallised in 18 hours of work and the strict political repression, added to their ignorance of self identity. As a collective force then, the rising of the working class becomes a narrative of rise to wisdom which is exemplified in the later centuries. To conclude then, it is observable that through his Songs of Innocence and of Experience Blake not only shows the various evils that pervaded in the society from the wake of the Industrial Revolution but also comments on the associations that the bearers of the society i.e. the working class had as an individual force with the world around it and itself. So, while he qualifies the state of the working class as neglected and disadvantaged he locates the weapon of their emancipation in their creative and generative potential. Thus, The Industrial England is not merely a ground on which the two states of being are found but also the canvas on which they meet.
Ram who have two wives