Every day, experts bombard us with their views on topics as varied as Iraqi insurgents, Bolivian coca growers, European central bankers, and North Korea's Politburo. But how much credibility should we attach to the opinions of experts?
Added: 1 year ago
Magazine Journalism The magazine journalism also termed as periodical press in the field of mass communication which is survived by alterations to cater to specific needs just as in the case of radio broadcast. Before the popularity of television started to rise, radio broadcast and the print industry specifically the magazine industry in India were blooming with high hopes. There were more magazines in English and even more in the regional languages on the newsstands, bookstalls and stores than ever before. There is place for all kinds of magazines like general interest magazines, speciality magazines, news magazines, house magazines etc. In fact magazine journalism in India has been in a way a trend setter where young editors got a chance to break new grounds and illustrate their innovative and improvisation skills posing challenges to their own creative ability and talent in the face of stiff competition. Magazine journalism is vitally different from newspaper journalism in many important aspects. Magazines lend perspective to contemporary events, they serve as interpreters and analysts of trends and events. Comparatively free from the deadline rush of the daily press, they are in a position to add a bit of background, researched effort and back reference to the contemporary events. With a more durable cover and stitched pages, magazines are not ephemeral things, to be flipped over and cast aside. Magazine perform a middle distance role between newspapers and books while newspapers report events as they occur and books record them with historical perspective, magazines add a new dimension that of investigation, data and analysis. Another basic difference between the magazine and newspaper is; while newspapers do not aim at a single special group, and must have something of everything for almost everybody, magazines are generally designed for specific target groups. Magazines provide immense diversity almost in every aspect i.e. cover, design, layout, contents and perspective, variety of subjects etc. The modern magazines are essentially a product of printing technology advancement fostered in America in the late ninetieth century. Though magazines in the twentieth century were heavily dependent on advertising as the main source of income, the industry had to face stiff competition from television and films and thus the era of television uprising also become the graveyard for many once popular and flourishing magazines. Indian newsmagazines flourished in the aftermath of emergency. Magazines like India today, Sunday, Week, Frontline and Outlook were successful in catching the attention and imagination of the reading public. The newsmagazines in India cover a wide range of subjects from politics, which dominates the pages, to sports, films, social themes, human interest stories to AIDS, women’s rights and human rights. In the 21st century magazine journalism has developed more specific and diversified traits and the cadre of journalism is sub divided into many more categories. Specific magazine publications have strived in specific beats like film magazines such as filmfare,stardust and femina which are called mags in general language,sports specific magazines such as sportsstar, automotive industry specific magazines like overdrive, business specific magazines like business today; in the current scenario the beats have grown and become more specified and diverse than ever before and the market and readership for every beat is blooming both in India and internationally.
Bollywood movies to look forward in 2018
So as we start a new year, we all hope that this one is better than the previous one and when it comes to Bollywood Movies, it is no different. We witnessed the grandeur of films like Baahubali and saw the fall of Tubelight, but 2018 promises to be bigger. The biggest movie to hit the floors this year is Sanjay Leela Bhansali's "Padmaavat". Starring Deepika Padukone, Ranveer Singh and Shahid Kapoor in lead roles, it has been center of controversies for past one year. The director was attacked on the sets, right wing protests had intensified as the film neared its original release date and ultimately it was postponed. But the big wait is finally over and we will be having a grand start to the year. Next we have is "Padman" coming on 26th January, where gender sensitisation reaches the cyclic level. Directed by R.Balki who courts the quirky with compelling credibility & starring Akshay Kumar the man who dares to venture into the unknown this movie promises to be a heart warming start to the year. The movie will clash with "Aiyaari" which is based on true story and as a tribute to the martyrs who laid down their lives for the country in 1971. After openly talking about the girlfriends and their tantrums in Pyaar Ka Punchnama the trio of Karthik Aaryan, director Luv Ranjan and Nushrat Bharucha is going to light up the big screen with "Sonu Ke Titu Ki Sweety". The next movie that we have is "Hichki" coming on 23rd February which is an official remake of "Front Of The Class". The movie is about the teacher, played by Rani Mukherjee, who is suffering from neurological disability and turns her biggest weakness into her biggest strength. "Sanju" , Yes one of the most awaited and really looked forward to movie that is based on the controversial life of Sanjay Dutt starring Ranbir Kapoor is expected to come out in theatres on 30th March. Kareena Kapoor and Sonam Kapoor will make sure the summers remain hot as the next movie gels well with the vacation mode. "Veere Di Wedding" is all about breaking the sterotype where the girl gang goes on the trip to find their true love instead of just sitting and waiting for it. How can a year go without any musical comedy and that is when the highly awaited "Fanney Khan" comes up on 13th April starring Anil Kapoor, Aishwarya Rai and Rajkumar Rao. It is the official remake of oscar nominated Dutch film "Everybody's Famous" ! "Kaalakaandi" is a dark comedy thriller is played out in 12 hours, with 6 different characters from different worlds featuring Saif Ali Khan in lead role and showing the city of mumbai with underworld goons. This promises to be an exciting year with lots of big hits in store. Stay excited because the future of Bollywood looks bright.
Impact of Trump's Announcement
Israel Rage continues after Trump’s announcement December 9, 2017 marks the 30th anniversary of the first ‘Intifada’ declared against Israel. Rage has again simmered on this day with the leader of Hamas, Ismail Haniyeh declaring the third uprising against Israel. This is the result of declaration by US president which recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. This declaration didn’t go well with Palestinian militant group and they consider it a declaration of war on Palestinians. At least three rockets have been launched till now from the Gaza toward the Israel town. In retaliation by Israel army two people were reported dead belonging to Hamas militant group and as many as 200 wounded and admitted in Gaza’s Shifa Hospital. Tension also rose in city of Bethlehem where protesters threw stones on Israeli troops. Demonstrations were also reported in East Jerusalem where Israeli troops used tear gas. Israel has also started targeting sites in Gaza following rocket strikes from militants. So this announcement by Mr. Donald Trump has created situation of new civil uprising in Israel and has given gift to radicalism. The Jerusalem has been one of the main obstacles for peace between Palestine and Israel after Israel occupied it in 1967. Since then Palestine has been claiming East Jerusalem whereas Israel recognizes it as its capital.
Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana Policy
Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana Policy Prime Minister recently launched the Saubhagya scheme, also known as the Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana. What does it aim to achieve and can it really attempt all it promises? Introduction Electricity availability is essential for the development of our country. It will have positive impact on the lives of people. It helps in boosting the education and healthcare facilities of the region which results in overall human development. According to ‘World Bank’ data in 2014 only 80% of India’s population had access to electricity compared to world average of 85%. Hence, the current government has been focussing a lot on increasing the access to electricity. Prime Minister Narendra Modi had also earlier launched two important schemes to boost the electricity connectivity namely UDAY & Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY). Need for Saubhagya scheme Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY) was launched in July 2015 to electrify the villages which didn’t have the connectivity. The government was able to electrify 14,701 villages but 2,760 were still left. Even if we consider that so many villages were electrified but still there was a lot of gap. According to the definition used: ‘A village was considered to be electrified even if 10% of household of that village had electricity connection’. Another gap was the irregular supply of electricity in the connected households. So, if out of 14000 villages electrified under this scheme, 90% of households don’t have connection and among those connected don’t have provision of minimum supply can still these villages be considered electrified? Features and Aim of Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana It has been launched by Prime Minister on 25th September, 2017. It is different from DDUGJY in the sense that it provides access to all by last-mile connectivity. So, it brings the transition from connection villages to connecting households. The outlay for the scheme proposed is Rs. 16,320 crore out of which 14,025 crore is for rural households. The target set by the government to complete the electrification process is 31st December, 2018. Government will provide free connections to families under BPL (Below Poverty Line) category. These BPL families will be identified through Socio Economic and Caste Census (SECC) 2011 data. The whole process will be done using latest technology like using mobile app for household survey. The households which are not covered under BPL status will also be given the facility of paying the fees of Rs.500 in 10 instalments. In addition to ensuring electricity connectivity to every household the scheme aims to upgrade environment because the use of Kerosene lamps for lightning purpose will reduce. Other outcomes it expects to achieve are better connectivity, improved health and education standards and more jobs. Hence, it will help in improving overall quality of life of people. Challenges in implementation There are two major challenges to implementation: 1. Connection Bills: Though the scheme has the provision of free connections for BPL households but it doesn’t take into account the payment of monthly electricity charges. It is unrealistic to expect that BPL households will be able to pay the monthly bills s per high tariff of DISCOMs. 2. Regular supply of electricity: According to an estimate if we assume that all remaining households are connected then it will require additional 28000MW which is 7% of country’s total capacity. Meeting this high power requirement will be a challenging task as already there is a shortage of power especially in rural areas. Conclusion In last three years many schemes have been launched that are based on Government’s agenda of development, Saubhagya is one such scheme. It has a very ambitious aim of connecting every household to electricity grid network of India. But it remains to be seen whether the demand of the additional capacity will be met. If this scheme is successful then it will definitely provide a huge boost to Indian economy and overall growth.
The sceptic media
Every day, experts bombard us with their views on topics as varied as Iraqi insurgents, Bolivian coca growers, European central bankers, and North Korea's Politburo. But how much credibility should we attach to the opinions of experts? Skeptics, warn that the mass media dictate the voices we hear and are less interested in reasoned debate than in catering to popular prejudices. As a result, fame could be negatively, not positively, correlated with long-run accuracy. Until recently, no one knew who is right, because no one was keeping score. But the results of a 20-year research project now suggest that the skeptics are closer to the truth. I describe the project in detail in my book Expert Political Judgment: How good is it? How can we know? The basic idea was to solicit thousands of predictions from hundreds of experts about the fates of dozens of countries, and then score the predictions for accuracy. We find that the media not only fail to weed out bad ideas, but that they often favor bad ideas, especially when the truth is too messy to be packaged neatly. The evidence falls into two categories. First, as the skeptics warned, when hordes of pundits are jostling for the limelight, many are tempted to claim that they know more than they do. Boom and doom pundits are the most reliable over-claimers. Between 1985 and 2005, boomsters made 10-year forecasts that exaggerated the chances of big positive changes in both financial markets. They assigned probabilities of 65% to rosy scenarios that materialized only 15% of the time. In the same period, doomsters performed even more poorly, exaggerating the chances of negative changes in all the same places where boomsters accentuated the positive. They assigned probabilities of 70% to bleak scenarios that materialized only 12% of the time. Second, again as the skeptics warned, over-claimers rarely pay penalties for being wrong. Indeed, the media shower lavish attention on over-claimers while neglecting their humbler colleagues. We can see this process in sharp relief when, following the philosopher Sir Isaiah Berlin, we classify experts as "hedgehogs" or "foxes." Hedgehogs are big-idea thinkers in love with grand theories: libertarianism, Marxism, environmentalism, etc. Their self-confidence can be infectious. They know how to stoke momentum in an argument by multiplying reasons why they are right and others are wrong. That wins them media acclaim. But they don't know when to slam the mental brakes by making concessions to other points of view. They take their theories too seriously. The result: hedgehogs make more mistakes, but they pile up more hits on Google. Imagine your job as a media executive depends on expanding your viewing audience. Whom would you pick: an expert who balances conflicting arguments and concludes that the likeliest outcome is more of the same, or an expert who gets viewers on the edge of their seats over radical Islamists seizing control and causing oil prices to soar? At this point, uncharitable skeptics chortle that we get the media we deserve. But that is unfair. No society has yet created a widely trusted method for keeping score on the punditocracy. Even citizens who prize accuracy have little way of knowing that they are sacrificing it when they switch channels from boring foxes to charismatic hedgehogs. Here, then, is a modest proposal that applies to all democracies: the marketplace of ideas works better if it is easier for citizens to see the trade-offs between accuracy and entertainment, or between accuracy and party loyalty. Wouldn't they be more likely to read pundits with better track records?
The most famous of all notions about man describes him as a social animal. That is to say, it is a part of his nature to form groups and communities wherever he lives, and that man cannot live without society. No one has indeed heard of any place where individuals live on their own. Only Homer in Odyssey presents us with a case where one-eyed giants lived in caves, and even they were said to have a family. Anyone who has observed animal life would know that they too live in groups, communicate with each other, and form herds and other such groupings. This seems like a typical social trait. What makes human groups unique is their advanced and descriptive vocal communication. We tend to form groups and a social life emerges sui generis - a self generating order. This spontaneous nature of social life is well understood by the social sciences. If this is what is meant by describing man as a social animal, then he is indeed so. A contention however may arise when the individual is described solely in social terms. Does this notion of man really describe an 'individual' in his or her totality? Is it a true reflection of his or her real nature? There are times when an individual wishes to interact with others, and there are times when he or she wishes to be left alone. An individual seems to have a 'dual nature' - he/she lives both at a personal as well as social level. Frank H. Knight, an American economist, has written on this issue, and has said that it is not 'as an animal' that man is social. I am trying to add to this. A more adequate description of man is to call him 'a thinking animal'. It is as a thinking animal that he is social. Indeed, our own personal growth in families never gives us an inkling of this issue - we are hardly even aware of it. A Prime Minister is said to have said, or perhaps she approved of the statement, that there is no such thing as society. There are norms however, for one thing. Customs and traditions to contend with. Guides to our life! If you can live without them, good luck. Or else, try and escape if you can!