Knowledge in Communications

Insertion Sort

Insertion sort is a simple sorting algorithm that builds the final sorted array one item at a time. It is much less efficient on large lists than more advanced algorithms such as quicksort, heapsort, or merge sort.

Asymptotic Notation

Asymptotic Notations are languages that allow us to analyze an algorithm's running time by identifying its behavior as the input size for the algorithm increases. This is also known as an algorithm's growth rate.

Analyzing Algorithms

Algorithm analysis is an important part of computational complexity theory, which provides theoretical estimation for the required resources of an algorithm to solve a specific computational problem. Most algorithms are designed to work with inputs of arbitrary length.

Dynamic Programming

Dynamic Programming is mainly an optimization over plain recursion. Wherever we see a recursive solution that has repeated calls for same inputs, we can optimize it using Dynamic Programming. The idea is to simply store the results of subproblems, so that we do not have to re-compute them when needed later.

NP Copmleteness and Approximation Algorithms

In computational complexity theory, a problem is NP-complete when it can be solved by a restricted class of brute force search algorithms and it can be used to simulate any other problem with a similar algorithm. ... If any NP-complete problem has a polynomial time algorithm, all problems in NP do.

ISO-OSI 7-Layer Network Architecture

The International Standards Organization (ISO) developed the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. It divides network communication into seven layers. ... Layers 5-7, called the the upper layers, contain application-level data. Networks operate on one basic principle: "pass it on."

Routing in Internet

Internet routing is the process of transmitting and routing IP packets over the Internet between two or more nodes. ... It utilizes IP-based networks, but mainly those which are publicly accessible such as that of ISPs.


BOOTP is implemented using the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) as transport protocol, port number 67 is used by the (DHCP) server to receive client requests and port number 68 is used by the client to receive (DHCP) server responses. BOOTP operates only on IPv4 networks.

Communication - Case Study

CASE STUDY ON COMMUNICATION Communication is the act of conveying meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs, symbols, and semiotic rules. The main steps inherent to all communication are: The formation of communicative motivation or reason. Message composition. Message encoding. Message Decoding and Feedback.

Satellite Communication

A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.

Reaching the target audience

Expressing yourself, your products and services is very important way to connect with audience.

How to improve critical thinking skills

Critical thinking refers to the act of questioning accepted ideas by seeking evidence and examining all sides of an issue.