The bear and bull markets are named after the way in which each animal attacks its victims. It is characteristic of the bull to drive its horns up into the air, while a bear, on the other hand, like the market that bears its name, will swipe its paws downward upon its unfortunate prey. Furthermore, bears and bulls were literally once fierce opponents, when it was popular to put bulls and bears into the arena to fight. Matches using bulls and bears (whether together or against other animals) took place in the Elizabethan era in London and were also a popular spectator sport in ancient Rome. Historically, the middlemen who were involved in the sale of bearskins would sell the skins that they had not yet received and, as such, these middlemen were the first short sellers. After promising their customers to deliver the paid-for bearskins, these middlemen would hope that the near-future purchase price of the skins from the trappers would decrease from the current market price. If the decrease occurred, the middlemen would make a personal profit from the spread between the price for which they had sold the skins and the price at which they later bought the skins from the trappers. These middlemen became known as bears, short for "bearskin jobbers," and the term stuck because it describes a person who expects or hopes for a decrease in the market.
China's attractiveness as a destination for investment capital rests on its development of infrastructure, resource availability (physical and labor), productivity and workforce skills, and the development of the business value chain. The level of maturation of these elements can make China more attractive for FDI relative to other nations, such as India, that compete and vie for the same investment capital. A growing and developing economy requires infrastructure and resources in order to facilitate the sale of goods and services. Lower transaction costs, due to the maturation of these elements, enables investors to earn returns on their investments as their enterprises are able to generate profits. Roads, highways, bridges and other forms of physical infrastructure should be present, maintained and provide sufficient safety for the transportation of goods as well as for the commute of employees. (For more on the importance of infrastructure, see Build Your Portfolio With Infrastructure Investments.) Another component for attracting FDI involves the availability of low-cost, skilled employees who possess the necessary aptitudes, experience and proficiencies to create, manufacture, and provide goods and services that can compete in global markets. (Learn how the Bretton Woods system got the ball rolling for world trade, read Global Trade And The Currency Market.)