Knowledge in Government Exams

Co-operative Banks and Commercial Banks

Difference Between Commercial Bank and Co-operative Bank : 1. Registration : In India, the Commercial Banks are required to be registered under Banking Regulation Act, 1949. In India, the Co-operative Banks are required to be registered under the Co-operative Societies Act, of the concerned state 2. Main Objective The main objective of a Commercial Bank is to accept deposits from public for the purpose of lending to industry and commerce. The main objective of a Co-operative Bank is to accept deposits from the members and the public for the purpose of providing loans to farmers and small businessmen with a motto of service. 3. Availability of Funds : Massive funds are available at the disposal of Commercial Banks. Limited funds are available at the disposal of Co-operative Banks. 4. Area of Operation : Commercial banks operate over a larger area. Some commercial banks even have branches in foreign countries. The area of operations of Co-operative Banks is limited and mostly confined to State. They do not operate at national level nor international level. 5. Nationalisation : At present 19 Commercial Banks have been nationalised in India. In India Co-operative Banks are not nationalised. 6. Merchant Banking Services : Commercial Banks provide merchant banking services such as advising the companies regarding the public issue of shares. Co-operative Banks do not provide merchant banking services. 7. Mutual Funds : Commercial Banks in India such as Canara Bank, Bank of India, State Bank of India, do operate mutual funds. At present co-operative banks in India do not operate mutual funds. 8. Basis of operation : Commercial banks operates on the commercial principles. They operate to earn a profit. The basis of operations is on co-operative lines, i.e. service to its members and the society. 9. Rate of Interest : The Commercial Banks provide a lesser rate of interest as compared to co-operative banks. The Co-operative Banks provide a little higher rate of interest on deposits as compared to commercial banks. 10. Voting rights : In the comm. banks , it depends on the share holding but in coop. bank it is one person one vote.

Art and Culture

                                                 Stupas, Chaityas and Viharas. # Stupas : 1. When Buddha was cremated his ashes, kept in casket, were distributed amongst  tribes and stupas were built over. With time construction of Stupa increased and specially during Ashoki, thousands were made. Like Sanchi Stupa. 2. Stupa has a cylindrical drum or a circular anda over which one can see harmika and chattra. The circumabulatory path, pradikshna path, is enclosed by railings called vedika. Devotees are supposed to go clockwise. The entrance has gates called Torans which are uprights pillars with crossbars, decorated with various Buddhist symbols in stone and are an imitation of previous woodworks. 3. Stupa is essentially compared to the Universe. 4. Famous examples are Sanchi, Bairut, Amravati, Nagarjunkonda, etc. 5. In stupas, relics of Buddha were kept. # Chaitya : 1. These are Buddhist temples. 2. Mostly carved out of rock decorated inside with motifs. 3. Prayers were conducted regularly and assembly if monks and devotees was a common feature. Many Chaityas show a stupa at the back. Chaitys were carved either as rectangular halls or apsidal vault-roof or apsidal vault pillarless halls. 4. Chaitya at Karle is the largest. # Viharas : 1. These are monk residences, either temporary or permanent. 2. All of them show commom features like a veranda, a hall, cells allong the pathways and a stupa at the back. 3. Ajanta caves were monsoon residence of Buddhist monks. 4. Many developed over time into big centres of learning. For example the Nalanda Mahavihaar built by KumarGupta became a university of repute. 5. Viharas were also cut in rocks mostly and with time many got abandoned. All these architectures are an attraction for tourism and represent our tangible heritage and are vital sources if information about Buddhism.

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