India is a country whose history is filled with communal acts of violence. This is due to many reasons such as its independence from the British, its relationship with neighboring countries etc. In this essay, we will introduce some key terms that will help you understand the topic better and then we will look at some of the ways in which we can stop communal violence in this country. 1. VIOLENCE AS A POLITICAL ORDER Political violence is a term which is used to describe a scenario in which either a single person or even whole governments use violence in order to gain political power or to achieve political goals. In India, we follow a multi-party system and because of that, there is a lot of competition in terms of getting votes. In order to get these votes, most political parties either give false promises to the people, use bribery as a means to get votes, threaten to either kill or beat up people who will go against them etc. It is not only the political parties that are responsible for political violence in India. The public too is responsible as there have been many scenarios where the public uses force in order to express their opinion on political matters. They are responsible for mobs, looting, arson etc. There are also many non- state organizations such as a terrorist group who use extreme ways such as bomb blasts as ways of communicating their displeasure.  Now we ask the question of what is state-related violence? 2. STATE- RELATED VIOLENCE State-related violence is when an organized group or the government itself uses violence either against another state or against civilians. For the purpose of this essay, we will be focusing on the latter part which is violence against civilians. There are many types of violence the state can do against civilians such as using armed forces to subdue an uprising. An example of this would be the Maoist movement in North- East India and how the Indian government is using the Indian army as a means of subduing them. What we will be focusing on in this essay is state-related genocide or ethnic cleansing. Ethnic cleansing is a process in which violent acts are carried out against a particular group of people based either on their caste, color, religion etc. This can also be called communal violence. What is communalism? 3. COMMUNALISM We can say that communalism “ in its most commonly perceived form, is the phenomenon of religious differences between groups often leading to tension and even rioting between them.( Mukhia 1983, p.1664). Communalism is a product of British rule in India as the Britishers separated India into separate communities for their own benefit.  In India, religious conflicts have been mainly between Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs. It all stems back to pre-independent India, where during the 19th century, there was the cow protection movement. Hindus worship cows and thus killing cows was not acceptable to them and thus began the long conflict between Hindus and Muslims through which numerous lives had been lost. Several pictures and motifs started to appear in broadcast appeals such as “the representation of the Muslim- and to a lesser extent the Englishmen, the Indian Christian and others- as the killer cows and, hence, the enemy of Hinduism”( Pandey 1999, p.310)  and “ other pictures more simply portrayed a (Muslim) butcher ready to slaughter a cow, and Hindus of several different castes crying out to him to desist”( Pandey 1999, p.310). This was just the start of the violence between Hindus and Mulims. The partition only deepened the wound as communal violence between the claimed close to 1 million lives. How do we stop communal violence? 4. COMMUNALISM WITHOUT VIOLENCE Communalism does not mean communal violence as “ Communal violence is a consequence of the spread of communal ideology. But it is not the crux of the communal situation at all.”( Chandra 1990, p.38)  There are many ways in which communal violence can be stopped. One of the most important ways is to either abolish all communal parties or to make sure that none of them come to power. As previously said, communalism was a product of colonization by the British. Due to this, there was a lot of different communities and each community had their own interests. Thus, to express those interests, each community made their own communal political party and “ The Muslim League and the Hindu Mahasabha of the pre-Independence India are the king examples of such communal organizations” ( Mukhia 1972, p.46) All communal parties have a religious ideology and they would like to implement the elements of those ideologies and that is a real threat to Secularism in India. In many cases, this leads to communal violence between two or more communities. This is also not an opinion but is a fact because there have been many cases of this over the last century. It was the Muslim League who had come up with the two-nation theory and had demanded that another country is formed just for Muslims as they thought that they were second-class citizens in India. That lead to the partition of India which resulted in the lives of close to 1 million people.  Another example would be when in 1984 Indra Gandhi attacked the Golden Temple in Amritsar with the help of the Indian army in order to capture the Sikh militants who had taken refuge in the temple.  This was not taken well by the Sikh community as the Golden Temple has religious sentiment to them and Indra Gandhi was later assassinated by her two Sikh bodyguards as vengeance for her act of violence. This later lead to anti- Sikh riots in which close to 3000 Sikhs, including woman and children, were either burned alive or killed and thousands became homeless. Even today there are many communal parties. Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh ( RSS) is a Hindu nationalist party who promotes the ideology of Hindutva.  If this party were to come to power then it would not be good for people of other religions as they would be treated as second-class citizens. Another communal party is Bhartiya Janata Party( BJP) who share a similar ideology to RSS.  Both these parties are also responsible for inciting communal violence as it was their rally that caused the activists and the supporters to demolish the Babri Masjid in 1992.  This turned into riots in which more than 2000 Hindus and Muslims were killed. Another incident in which BJP was suspected to be involved with communal violence was in 2002 in Gujrat, when a train full of  Hindu pilgrim or  ‘ karsevaks’ was burned and the people suspected that such an act could only be done by Muslims.  This had again led to anti- Muslim riots in Gujrat and around 1000 people dead with more than 2000 people either injured or missing, with most of them being Muslim. The then chief minister of Gujrat, Narendra Modi, who was also of BJP, was accused of starting or initiating the riots. From the examples we just discussed we know how dangerous it could be if a communal party is in power although it might not be true in all cases.  If a communal party has state power then it means “above all, control of education, it means control of media, it means control of ideological State apparatuses in general”( Chandra 1990, p.43). Through this power, the party might bring good to the society, or else it could use the media and manipulate the education system to spread its ideology. Another method to remove communal violence is through the right kind of education. As previously mentioned, most communal parties spread wrong ideologies and one of the reasons that people believe them so easily is because they have not received the right kind of education. That is because in some states the children are brainwashed at a young age as the curriculum in their schools spread their religious ideologies. The previous statement is supported by K. N. Panikar  who says “. Much before the M.P. and U.P. governments took steps to rewrite textbooks these books were in circulation, imparting to in young minds Hindu religious consciousness and communal ideology” ( Panikar 1993, p.28).  He also says “The focus of these books is religious and their message communal. Extracts from Hindu scriptures, stories from Hindu mythology and the heroism of Hindu kings against Muslim rulers are their main content.”( Panikar 1993, p.28).  With the right kind of education, the children can learn the positive sides of every community and not participate in violence rather than being subjected to only the negatives of every other community other than their own. Continuing with the previous argument, better education would mean a better understanding of other communities. This could be used to promote inter-communal marriage. Due to the lack of proper education in many places, religious orthodoxy remains an issue and there have been cases in which a couple from different religions either get exiled by their communities or are hunted down by their communities. This could be changed by proper education as this may get rid of previously mentioned radical approaches. If two families from different communities are joined together by marriage, then this could be followed by other families in other communities too. Through this, they will be able to ‘discover’ more about the other communities and might realize that whatever they had been told about the other community was in fact wrong. This system of inter-communal marriage is already taking place across India in big cities but it will really make a difference if also done in small cities and rural areas. One of the very important reasons of why communal violence takes place mostly between Hindus and Muslims is due to how media portray Muslims. Due to the history between the two communities because of the violence that ensued during the partition and the recent Muslim attacks in the name of Islam all over the world, the media has somewhat demonized Muslims. Due to all this, the term Islamophobia is used. Islamophobia can be “ observed in its various forms such as racial or cultural prejudice, hatred towards Muslims and Islam and their depiction as a threat to world peace”( Iqbal 2010, p.82). There have also been many attacks in India by Pakistan. Pakistan has been blamed for using militant forces on India and has also been held responsible for trying to turn the Muslim population in India against India. An example of this would be when after the independence of India, the dispute over who Kashmir belonged to arose. In an attempt to get a hold of Kashmir, Pakistan sent militants to Kashmir to take it by force. It was only when Kashmir formally became a part of India when India troops arrived and drove the militants away. That is not the only case when India was attacked by Islamic terrorists. In 2005, a group of terrorists, whose base was in Pakistan attacked Mumbai. The attacks lasted 4 days and over 150 people were killed. It is due to these reasons that there are misconceptions about Muslims such as that all ‘Muslims are terrorists’. As previously said, Pakistan targets the Muslim community in India in attempts to turn them against their own country. This leads to some problems for the Muslim population as “some significant groups in the population find it difficult to reconcile their primordial background with the new-found civic order and hold higher allegiance to the subnational groupings'.” ( Azam 1976, p.26). With the help of the media, we can get rid of these preconceived notions. So from all the above arguments and examples, we can say that communalism is nothing but a false ideology and that the impression it has on people is of a wrong reality which will be harmful to the society. The above reasons could hamper India’s position at a global level. If we try to accomplish the above ways through which we can eradicate communal violence, then we will certainly be able to  have a better society and build towards a better future. REFERENCES- 1. Mukhia, Harbans. 1983. “Communalism and Indian Politics”. Economic and Political Weekly 18( 39): 1664 2. Pandey, Gyanendra 1999. “Communalism as Construction”. Politics in India edited by Sudipta Kaviraj, New Delhi: OUP, pp. 349-364 3. Chandra, Bipin. 1990. “Communalism and the State : Some Issues in India.” Social Scientist 18( 8/9): 38-47 4. Mukhia, Harbans. 1972. “ Communalism: A Study in Its Socio- Historical Perspective”. Social Scientist 1(1): 45-57 5. Panikar, K.N.  1993. “ Culture and Communalism”. Social Scientist 21 (3/4) : 24-31 6. Iqbal, Zafar. 2010. “Islamophobia or Islamophobias: Towards Developing A Process Model”. Islamic Studies 49 (1): 81-101 7. Azam, Kousar J. 1976. “THE INDIAN MUSLIMS— THE QUEST FOR IDENTITY”. The Indian Journal of Political Science 37 (3): 24-42

politics of low cost

politics of low cost

Notes on Indian Contract Act 1872

These notes contain Business Law notes Chapter 2 The Indian Contract Act of 1872. very easy notes. please study according to your syllabus only.

Chandryaan 2

India's Chandrayaan-2 towards making history The Indian Space Research Organization has already successfully entered Chandrayaan-2 into the lunar orbit. After this, ISRO will process the separation of lander 'Vikram' from Chandrayaan-2 orbiter today (2 September) which will be done between 12.45 AM to 1.45 PM today. Hollander 'Vikram' will reach the lunar surface between 1.30 am and 2.30 am on September 7. The country's second lunar mission Chandrayaan-2 entered the lunar orbit on 20 August. After separating from the lander 'Vikram' orbiter on 2 September, it will make a 'soft landing' in the South Pole region of the Moon on 7 September. By doing this, India will become the first country in the world to reach the South Pole region of the moon. Russia, America and China have reached the moon before India but they did not reach the moon in the South Pole region. After landing on the lunar surface of the moon, a rover named 'Pragyan' will come out from within it and on its 6 wheels, it will carry out scientific experiments on the lunar surface. The success of the 'Chandrayaan-2' mission will be a glorious moment for India as no country has reached the South Pole region of the moon. 'Chandrayaan-2' will land in the South Pole region of the Moon, where no country has yet been reached. This will help unravel the moon's unsolved secrets.

Human Rights

This will increase your knowledge on the topic of human rights and help you to be aware of your own rights.

Municipal Corporation , Municipality and List of current Mayor

It tells us about the information Regarding Municipalities and Municipal Corporation. Mayors important roles include leadership, promoting positive Relationships ...This sort of Information will definitely help the UPSC aspirant because this are some of the basic information a person should know for any exams whether it is am SSC , UPSC or any civil Service exams going around in india apart from that A Mayor plays a very Important Role in Control of the City . As he is one of main person Responsible for what's going around in the city A Municipal Corporation is Ruled by an IAS Officer which is a very Big Responsibly taken by the person.

List of the Responsibilities given to a governor , Chief Minster and Council of Minsters of statea

Legislative and Executive Control given to state government . Here, We are giving information regarding the Important Roles and Postions given to a Governor , CM and Council of Minster of the states A Governor of a state can get elected to become a President of a particular country while chief minister can get elected to become the prime minister of a Particular Country or both .... A Governor had more power than the CM.

Iist of Power , Responsibilities of a Chief Minster

We all know that Chief Minster is an very Important person who had a big responsibility in his shoulders he has a power remove any member from the mystery ministry.. he has the power to execute the construction of any problem infrastructure (highway bridges Road etc ) Chief minister is the head of of Council of ministers... everyone knows chief Minster play behind the working and affairs of the state.

What is Council of Minsters of State ? How do they function?

the Council of ministers of state are responsible for creating overlooking and revising policies on the matter of water storage agriculture land supplies and distribution of goods they are also responsible for maintaining peace within the public by having affairs between the state these are some of the responsibility that is given to the Council of Minsters apart from that they work very closely to Chief minister of the state

Guiding Values of the Indian Constitution

The important values of Indian constitutions are depicted in the following illustration −LibertyThe Constitution provides every citizen a number of liberties and freedoms under Article 19 to 21, 21A, and 22. It is established that no unreasonable restrictions can be imposed upon citizens to regulate their freedom.Right to Freedom under Article 19 includes −The right to freedom of speech and expression;The right to form association;The right to move freely;Reside in any part of the country; andThe right to practice any profession, occupation, or business.EqualityThe Constitution states that all citizens are equal before the law and the government should ensure that the traditional practice of social inequalities on the grounds of caste, religion, and gender has to be ended.Right to Equality is enshrined under Articles 14 to 18 of the Indian Constitution of India, which guarantees the right to equality to all persons and prohibits any kind of discrimination against any citizen on any of the grounds of religion, race, caste, gender, and place of birth.Article 14 provides that all persons are equal before the law. This means that all persons shall be equally protected by the laws of the country.Article 15 states that no citizen can be discriminated against on the basis of his/her religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth.Article 16 states that the State cannot discriminate against anyone in matters of employment.Article 17 abolishes the practice of untouchability from India. It provides that every person has access to all public places including playgrounds, hotels, shops, etc.Right against Exploitation is enshrined under Article 23 to 24 of the Constitution of India. It provides fundamental right against exploitation to every citizen of India.Article 23 of the Constitution provides for prohibition of any kind of forced labor and any violation of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with the law.Article 24 protects the children by stating that no child below the age of 14 shall be employed to work in any factory or mines or any other hazardous employment.FraternityAll the Indians are members of a family, no one is inferior or superior, all are equal and have same rights and duties.SovereigntyThe government of India is free to take any decision on internal as well as external matters and no external power can dictate it.SocialistIn a socialist country, citizens have the right to property but the government should regulate it by law, the socio-economic activities to reduce inequalities in the society and hence, every citizen has equal right to share the resources of the country.The concept of social justice was adopted by the 42nd amendment of Constitution that enables courts to uphold provisions to remove economic inequalities in our society.SecularIndia is a secular country. There is no official religion of the government and the government treats all the religions equally.Articles 25 to 28 provide ‘Right to freedom of Religion’ for every citizen. This is a Fundamental Right that allows every individual a freedom to live by their religious beliefs and practices as they interpret these beliefs.Cultural and Educational Rights (Article 29 to 30) state that all minorities, religious or linguistic, having a distinct language, script or culture of its own, (they) can set up their own educational institutions in order to preserve and develop their language, script, or culture.DemocraticThe democratic system of government runs according to some basic principles, which are collectively called as ‘Rule of Law.’In a democratic form of the government, the people of the country enjoy equal political rights, choose to elect and change their representatives, and hold them accountable.PreambleThe Indian democracy is founded on those values that had inspired and guided the freedom struggle.The Indian Constitution embedded the values in its Preamble. Therefore the Preamble emanates lights that glitter all the articles of the Indian Constitution.The Preamble provides a short introductory statement of the basic values of the constitution to start with. In other words, it is the ‘Soul of the Constitution.’It is the preamble that provides a standard to examine and evaluate any law and action of the government to judge its validity and sanctity.

Indian Polity - Source of Constitution

The United KingdomCabinet System of MinistersParliamentary type of GovernmentPost of Prime MinisterBicameral ParliamentCouncil of MinistersProvision of Speaker in Lok SabhaLegislationCitizenshipWritsRule of LawPreambleThe United StatesFundamental RightsIndependent JudiciaryJudicial ReviewImpeachment of PresidentRemoval of Judges (of Supreme Court & High Courts)Functions of Vice-PresidentFederal System (with strong Center)CanadaResiduary powers in the CenterAppointment of Governors (in states) by the CenterAdvisory Jurisdiction of Supreme CourtPrinciple of co-operative federalismAustraliaFreedom of Inter-State tradeTrade and CommerceConcurrent ListJoint siting of the two Houses of ParliamentDirective Principles of State PolicyIrelandPresidential ElectionNominating the members of Rajya SabhaRepublicFranceLiberty, Equality, and Fraternity in the PreambleFundamental DutiesRussiaIdea of Social, Economic, and Political Justice in PreambleProcedure for amendmentSouth AfricaElection of Rajya Sabha membersEmergency powers to be enjoyed by the UnionGermanySuspension of Fundamental Rights during emergencyProcedure Established by LawJapanThe federal schemeGovt. of India Act 1935Role of federal judiciaryOffice of the GovernorEmergency provisionsPublic Service CommissionsAdministrative details