after having a prolonged discussion on URL Shorteners and how they can be used programmatically. Let’s jot down a list of pros and cons of these services. URL shortening services have been around for longer than most people realize. The first notable URL Shortening service TinyUrl was released in 2002. Since then there was no looking back. With the advent in technology, URL Shortening services are also upgrading themselves by increasing the number of services they provide to the user. Apart from the URL Shortening service, they provide facility for tracking the activity on the shortened link which in technical terms we call Link Analytics. These services now days also provide a way to customize your Shortened URL in order to make it more attractive. But irony is, they are not a totally perfect solution. Now, let’s discuss about some pros and cons of URL Shortening service and how they affect the privacy and security of a user on online social media. Let’s start with pros first. Pros of URL Shorteners: Attractive: Using URL Shorteners on Online Social Media exactly started or we can say became popular due to Twitter. Due to character Limit on Twitter, it was difficult for users to share long links. This was the only reason that made these URL Shortening services more popular in a short span of time. With the advent of these services, User was able to share as much as long URL on Twitter by simply shortening the URL. Thus making the post more attractive and appealing to the audience/ followers. Link Analytics: Now a days majority of URL Shortening services provide a new feature, Tracking. For example, if we consider the case of Bitly, it provides Link Tracking feature. This feature enables the user to track the user activity-number of clicks, geographic location of the user who clicked the link on the shortened URL. This helps user to analyze the popularity of the link. Below is the sample snapshot of Link Analytics report of two links that were shortened using Bitly. Customization: URL Shortening services also provide another feature that helps user to customise the shortened link. This will help to add a string as per your choice or need to the Shortened URL, to make it look nicer and less random. Below is the sample snapshot of how customization can be done. For demonstration purpose, I have used the following long URL: Now let us have a look on Cons of URL Shortening Services. Cons of URL Shorteners: Abuse: URL Shortening services are a great source for spammers and hackers to get a hold of victim computer. They share a link and fool user into clicking the link. Thus, either setting up the virus in the victim computer or getting important user credentials through fake URL. This definitely breaches privacy and security of the user. It is very important to keep following points in mind: Always check the link before clicking it. The easiest way is just to place your cursor on the link and you will get an idea where shortened URL is exactly pointing. Do not click a link shared by unknown person. If a link is shared by email, read the email carefully for the signs of spammed email. If not a spam email, you can check where link directs and then click on the link. Do not share your important credentials like bank details, social media user id-password on such shared links. Due to such abuse of URL shortening services, many have been discontinued. It is very important and difficult to keep domain spam free. Dead Link: If the shortening service, that was used to shorten the URL is discontinued, Link will stop working. Thus, making it a Dead Link. These phenomena is also known as Linkrot Blocking: Some Social Media Platform do not accept shortened Links. For example, Wikipedia do not accept shortened Links. Yahoo!Answers blocks posts that contain links shortened using TinyUrl Shortening service. Advertising: We have discussed in the previous article about Adf.ly. This is a URL Shortening Service that allows user to earn by shortening a link or user can pay to advertise their website on Adf.ly homepage. It uses interstitial advertising for generating revenue. This may deter readers. Privacy and Security Breach: As discussed earlier, shortened URL can redirect to a spam or scam webpage. Thus, breaching the privacy and security of the users. Many shortening services provide an option of preview to the users to view the redirection of the link before clicking on it. For example, TinyUrl was declared unsafe by ZoneAlarm, stating that TimyUrl is known to spread spyware. To counter this problem, TinyUrl provides the option to preview the destination before clicking on the link, by simply adding the word preview to the shortened URL like this: Shortened URL: https://tinyurl.com/ycgpdnek Preview keyword added: https://preview.tinyurl.com/ycgpdnek Every Service has pros and cons but it’s upto us how we use it. It is better to use the service wisely, as in the era of social media every minute detail about us is online. Thus, making us more vulnerable.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants, and other products to sustain and enhance life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years; people gathered wild grains at least 105,000 years ago and began to plant them around 11,500 years ago before they became domesticated. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Crops originate from at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture has in the past century come to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people worldwide still depend on subsistence agriculture. Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, and technological developments have sharply increased yields from cultivation, but at the same time have caused widespread ecological and environmental damage. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage through contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, deforestation, antibiotic resistance, and growth hormones in industrially produced meat. Genetically modified organisms are widely used, although they are banned in several countries. The major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers, fuels, and raw materials (such as rubber). Classes of foods include cereals (grains), vegetables, fruits, oils, meat, milk, fungi, and eggs. Over one-third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the number of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased significantly over the past several centuries.
Earth Science Introduction
Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science related to the planet Earth. It is the branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the earth and its atmosphere. Earth science is the study of our planet’s physical characteristics, from earthquakes to raindrops, and floods to fossils. Earth science can be considered to be a branch of planetary science, but with a much older history. “Earth science” encompasses four main branches of study, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere, each of which is further broken down into more specialized fields. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. It is also the study of the Earth and its neighbors in space. Some Earth scientists use their knowledge of the Earth to locate and develop energy and mineral resources. Others study the impact of human activity on the Earth's environment, and design methods to protect the planet. Some use their knowledge about Earth processes such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and hurricanes to plan communities that will not expose people to these dangerous events. The Earth sciences can include the study of geology, the lithosphere, and the large-scale structure of the Earth's interior, as well as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Typically, Earth scientists use tools from geography, chronology, physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth works and evolves. Earth science affects our everyday lives. For example, meteorologists study the weather and watch for dangerous storms. Hydrologists study water and warn of floods. Seismologists study earthquakes and try to predict where they will strike. Geologists study rocks and help to locate useful minerals. Earth scientists mainly work “in the field”—climbing mountains, exploring the seabed, crawling through caves, or wading in swamps. They measure and collect samples (such as rocks or river water), then they record their findings on charts and maps.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth's surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation). By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere. Air content and atmospheric pressure vary at different layers, and air suitable for use in photosynthesis by terrestrial plants and breathing of terrestrial animals is found only in Earth's troposphere and in artificial atmospheres. The atmosphere has a mass of about 5.15×1018 kg, three-quarters of which is within about 11 km (6.8 mi; 36,000 ft) of the surface. The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space. The Kármán line, at 100 km (62 mi), or 1.57% of Earth's radius, is often used as the border between the atmosphere and outer space. Atmospheric effects become noticeable during atmospheric reentry of spacecraft at an altitude of around 120 km (75 mi). Several layers can be distinguished in the atmosphere, based on characteristics such as temperature and composition.
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