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Indian Middle Class Consumer

The article mainly focuses on the Indian middle class consumer. Using material from the article, discuss the relationship between the middle class consumer and the middle class citizen. Why has the Indian growth experience been different relative to its peers? Why has growth not created a middle class like other places (especially China)? As per the report of HSBC bank, India nearly has 300 mn citizens in middle class which expected to become 550 mn by 2025. Despite this huge base of middle class in India, the growth experience of firm has been completely different from expectations. The returns in India has fall short of expectations. The initial growth of more than 100% in 2014 and 2015 in e-commerce sector raised the growth expectations while the actual growth now lies somewhere between 25-30%. The growth in other sectors have also been very slow as compared to other countries. The article draws examples from countries like Ireland, Kazakhstan, Lithuania where Zara has more shops tan India or Starbucks which opens one store in 15 hours in China as compared to two months in India. The main reason lies in the difference between middle class consumer and middle-class citizen. Though the size of middle class has increased, most people have little money to spend. More than 80% of the Indian population earns less than $1700 while a latest iPhone costs $1400. The middle-class citizen spends most of its income on better education and health care facilities. National Council of Applied Economic Research defines a person to be belonging to middle class if s/he earns Rs. 250,000 in a year which amounts to less than $10 a day. According to article, most western firms assumed the size of middle-class to be same as that of other developing countries where these companies have succeeded in the past and the growth in GDP would be correlated with growth of middle-class. However, both these assumptions are found to be incorrect in the Indian context. This is primarily because of highly skewed distribution of wealth in India. The top 1% of India’s population holds almost 22% of the total wealth in India as compared 14% in China. This depicts the wide gap that exists between the rich and the poor in the country. A survey suggests that less than 3% of Indians own all five of the given luxuries: car or scooter, a television, a computer, refrigerator and air conditioner. Most of the households hold only one of the given luxuries. This is the true picture of Indian middle-class citizen as against the expected middle-class consumer. As opposed to other economies, the rich people in India are superrich while middle class do not have high spending capacity. Thus, the base of potential spenders in narrower in case of India. However, due to the high population of India, even this narrow base includes big consumer segment and attracts foreign companies. The growth in Indian economy has not created a middle class like other places as China because of the following underlying reasons: 1.      Jobless Growth: A sudden jump from agriculture-based economy to service-based economy bypassing the manufacturing sector which is the most labour intensive in nature as has been the case with China for more than two decades. Since the service-based industry is highly skill based, lots of people are unable to find employment to sustain their basic needs let alone the luxuries. 2.      Income disparity and growing inequality: This sudden jump and lack of labour intensive sectors has also resulted into a huge income disparity with rich people getting richer day by day while poor people are becoming destitute. Top 10% of population constitute around 55% of the national income. Even though the Indian middle class is far from wealthy, the rich people are super rich. 3.      Over-dependency on government jobs and IT sectors: The government jobs which employ the major chunk for middle class in India are disappearing at a fast pace @ 100,000 jobs a year. 4.      Stagnant Salaries: Salaries have been stagnant at big corporates for quite a long time and the recruitment rates are dropping. 5.      Lower rate of urbanization: This has resulted in lesser migration of people from countryside to relatively better paying jobs in urban areas. 6.      Employment in Informal Sector: Major chunk of the workforce is employed in the informal sector which is not productive enough to pay salaries close to the middle-income group. 7.      Participation by Women Workforce: Women workforce participation is negligible because of social customs as well as the meagre situation at workplaces. 8.      Poor Healthcare and Education: Dismal conditions of healthcare and education sector in India  forces people to spend a major part of their disposable income on these facilities.

The mother of the brave

First a soldier , then my son was he. Head held high, broad chest with a strong body. On a bright day, he took birth From my womb, to bring me mirth. On the same bright day ,he took birth again From motherland’s womb, to vanish all her pain. Proud was I, holding my child, to feed from my breast. Proud was I, even while holding my brave, in eternal rest. Tears on face with a smiling heart, I bade him every time he went apart. Tears on heart with a smiling face, I bade him last time as he lay still in my place. I know he might not have relaxed, Even after being hit and collapsed, I know he might have fought till his last breadth, Because my blood, bold and courageous, is not afraid of death. For mothers like me, it’s a thorny path to tread, But sons like mine, in every corner will be bred. Before he left for his heavenly abort, I had gently stroked his head Like I used to do, when in a sleep he lay on his bed. With a heart braver than my brave I am the mother of a martyr, sleeping in the grave.

7 Steps to Prepare for Your Job Interview

Now that you have an interview, there are certain things you will want to do in advance to prepare for it. This article will provide practical tips on how to prepare for a job interview. Remember, you never get a second chance to make a first impression, so you’ll want to do your best in preparing for your interview in advance. 1. Pick your outfit: What you wear on your interview is an absolutely crucial part of how to prepare for a job interview. After you choose your outfit, make sure it is cleaned and pressed and you have the appropriate accessories and shoes to go with it. It doesn’t hurt to try the outfit on ahead of time, just to make sure everything fits and you look great. Then put your outfit aside for the day of your interview and have it ready to go. Now that you have this crucial step out of the way, you can concentrate on the rest. 2. Practice greeting your interviewer: You should always greet your interview with a friendly smile and firm handshake. If you do this right, you will set off the right energy and the chances of the interview going well will increase. This is a small and simple step that you should always to do to prepare for your interview. 3. Study your resume and know everything about it: Any work experience or skills you have listed on your resume are fair game to talk about during the interview. Your resume is all the interviewer has to go by in order to get to know you. They may pick things out from it and ask you to elaborate. Even though you may have a previous job listed that was many years ago, the interviewer may ask you to explain what you did at that job and you are responsible for providing an answer. This is one step you absolutely won’t want to skip on how to prepare for a job interview. 4. Practice your answers to the most common interview questions: If you don’t know what these are, do your research and find out or see one of my other articles. You’ll want to have your answers ready and practice them. You should always be able to answer “Tell me about yourself” and “Why do you think you would be great for this job?” The employer doesn’t know, so it’s up to you to sell it. Don’t completely memorize your answers so they come out rehearsed, but have a clear idea of what you are going to say. When you are asked, you want your answer to come out intelligently and natural. Be open to other questions as well and really know what you can offer to the company. 5. Research the company and the job position you are applying for: Write down any questions you may have about either so you can ask during the interview. If there any requirement of the job that you are unsure of, you should definitely ask during the interview. It always looks nice when you go into an interview with intelligent questions. It shows you put effort into preparing for the interview. However, never ask questions just to ask questions. The interviewer will see right through that. Your questions should be genuine and relevant. 6. Find out the type of interview you will be going on: There are several common types of interviews such as one on one, group, and behavioral. You shouldn’t assume you will get a certain one. Don’t be afraid to ask your recruiter what kind of interview will have if you don’t know – the interview will be more beneficial to both parties if you are prepared. 7. Print out the directions to the interview and be on time: Allow enough time to get there and anticipate traffic. It’s ok to be up to 10 minutes early, but no more than that. Otherwise, the interviewer may not be ready for you. Bring the phone number of your interviewer just in case you get lost or are going to be late. If you are going to be late, call to let the interviewer know. Follow these tips and you will successfully know how to prepare for a job interview. Interviewers can tell whether or not a candidate has prepared for it or not and they will appreciate it if you did.

Is my success tour success?

Is my success your success And my failure your failure?  Or where I fall is a fall for you And my stand ,your stand?  I slip down and I feel I failed But is your failure a slip Or a roll on the ground?  A stand straight is a success for me.  Is that the same for you,  Or a fly above is the one?  Or is success a state of mind They varies in every being, you find?  Wonder, wonder oh men of earth Is success for you, money or mirth?

To Travel

To travel the curves of your hip To travel the slopes of your legs I start from the mountain feet Ascending towards divine peak To travel the valley between the rocks To travel the soft soothing trench I start from the mountain feet Ascending towards divine peak To travel the turns of yours neck To travel the forest of your head I start from the mountain feet Ascending towards divine peak To travel Mirage of your eyes To travel the swamps of your lips I start from the mountain feet Ascending towards divine peak To travel the land that makes you To travel the maze of illusion in you I start from the mountain feet Ascending towards divine peak

The world in a world

Where you stand Is a world in a world One in your mind resides And the other beholds your eyes Fishing seems foolish In the front motion chart As you ponder the yellowish, The heaviest mortal part Look the scattered In a fist in you. Look all that mattered In your conscience's hue. Then will you stand In this world in a world.

Virat Kohli named ICC Cricketer of the Year

After the second test debacle against South Africa, where the batting unit collapsed again only for a late fightback from Rohit Sharma to save some grace, the times were not going good for the recently married Indian Cricket Team Captain. But Virat Kohli had something to cheer about on Thursday night when he was named as the ICC ODI Cricketer of the Year at the ICC Awards. Virat Kohli was also named the ICC Cricketer of the year and captain of both ODI and Test teams. Kohli has been the batting mainstay of this talented Indian batting line-up. He had amassed 1460 runs in 26 innings and at a humongous average of 76.84 with a strike rate of 99.11. During this period he scored 6 centuries and led India to the final of Champions Trophy. He was also there to lead India to ODI series wins over England, West Indies, Sri Lanka, Australia, New Zealand and Test series wins over Bangladesh, Australia and Sri Lanka (twice). Many records tumbled during the record breaking year. When he scored his 31st ODI hundred he went past Ricky Ponting in the all time ODI centurion list and is now at second position. During the course of his 32nd century he became the fastest to reach to the milestone of 9,000 runs and the most successful captain in an year, surpassing the Australian great Ricky Ponting. Kohli also regained the top position in ICC rankings for ODI batsmen. ICC had listed out Kohli's achievements and tipped him to surpass the record 49ODI tons scored by Sachin Tendulkar. Kohli posted a video message thanking his supporters and mentioned that he was honoured to win the Sir Garfield Sobers award. This is also the first time since 2009 that an Indian player has been named captain for both the formats with MS Dhoni being the last one to achieve this feat. Kohli has been the pride of the country and ever since the retirement of Sachin Tendulkar and his incredible record justifies the comparision. Carrying the hopes and expectations of a billion people is no mean feat and getting this prestigious award adds another feather in the cap of soon to be one of the greatest players to have played the game.

History of Cricket

A brief history of cricket The origins of cricket lie somewhere in the Dark Ages - probably after the Roman Empire, almost certainly before the Normans invaded England, and almost certainly somewhere in Northern Europe. All research concedes that the game derived from a very old, widespread and uncomplicated pastime by which one player served up an object, be it a small piece of wood or a ball, and another hit it with a suitably fashioned club. How and when this club-ball game developed into one where the hitter defended a target against the thrower is simply not known. Nor is there any evidence as to when points were awarded dependent upon how far the hitter was able to despatch the missile; nor when helpers joined the two-player contest, thus beginning the evolution into a team game; nor when the defining concept of placing wickets at either end of the pitch was adopted. Etymological scholarship has variously placed the game in the Celtic, Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, Dutch and Norman-French traditions; sociological historians have variously attributed its mediaeval development to high-born country landowners, emigré Flemish cloth-workers, shepherds on the close-cropped downland of south-east England and the close-knit communities of iron- and glass-workers deep in the Kentish Weald. Most of these theories have a solid academic basis, but none is backed with enough evidence to establish a watertight case. The research goes on. What is agreed is that by Tudor times cricket had evolved far enough from club-ball to be recognisable as the game played today; that it was well established in many parts of Kent, Sussex and Surrey; that within a few years it had become a feature of leisure time at a significant number of schools; and - a sure sign of the wide acceptance of any game - that it had become popular enough among young men to earn the disapproval of local magistrates. Dates in cricket history 1550 (approx) Evidence of cricket being played in Guildford, Surrey.  1598 Cricket mentioned in Florio's Italian-English dictionary. 1610 Reference to "cricketing" between Weald and Upland near Chevening, Kent. 1611 Randle Cotgrave's French-English dictionary translates the French word "crosse" as a cricket staff. Two youths fined for playing cricket at Sidlesham, Sussex. 1624 Jasper Vinall becomes first man known to be killed playing cricket: hit by a bat while trying to catch the ball - at Horsted Green, Sussex. 1676 First reference to cricket being played abroad, by British residents in Aleppo, Syria. 1694 Two shillings and sixpence paid for a "wagger" (wager) about a cricket match at Lewes. 1697 First reference to "a great match" with 11 players a side for fifty guineas, in Sussex. 1700 Cricket match announced on Clapham Common. 1709 First recorded inter-county match: Kent v Surrey. 1710 First reference to cricket at Cambridge University. 1727 Articles of Agreement written governing the conduct of matches between the teams of the Duke of Richmond and Mr Brodrick of Peperharow, Surrey. 1729 Date of earliest surviving bat, belonging to John Chitty, now in the pavilion at The Oval. 1730 First recorded match at the Artillery Ground, off City Road, central London, still the cricketing home of the Honourable Artillery Company. 1744 Kent beat All England by one wicket at the Artillery Ground. First known version of the Laws of Cricket, issued by the London Club, formalising the pitch as 22 yards long. 1767 (approx) Foundation of the Hambledon Club in Hampshire, the leading club in England for the next 30 years. 1769 First recorded century, by John Minshull for Duke of Dorset's XI v Wrotham. 1771 Width of bat limited to 4 1/4 inches, where it has remained ever since. 1774 LBW law devised. 1776 Earliest known scorecards, at the Vine Club, Sevenoaks, Kent. 1780 The first six-seamed cricket ball, manufactured by Dukes of Penshurst, Kent. 1787 First match at Thomas Lord's first ground, Dorset Square, Marylebone - White Conduit Club v Middlesex. Formation of Marylebone Cricket Club by members of the White Conduit Club. 1788 First revision of the Laws of Cricket by MCC. 1794 First recorded inter-schools match: Charterhouse v Westminster. 1795 First recorded case of a dismissal "leg before wicket". 1806 First Gentlemen v Players match at Lord's. 1807 First mention of "straight-armed" (i.e. round-arm) bowling: by John Willes of Kent. 1809 Thomas Lord's second ground opened at North Bank, St John's Wood. 1811 First recorded women's county match: Surrey v Hampshire at Ball's Pond, London. 1814 Lord's third ground opened on its present site, also in St John's Wood. 1827 First Oxford v Cambridge match, at Lord's. A draw. 1828 MCC authorise the bowler to raise his hand level with the elbow. 1833 John Nyren publishes his classic Young Cricketer's Tutor and The Cricketers of My Time. 1836 First North v South match, for many years regarded as the principal fixture of the season. 1836 (approx) Batting pads invented. 1841 General Lord Hill, commander-in-chief of the British Army, orders that a cricket ground be made an adjunct of every military barracks. 1844 First official international match: Canada v United States. 1845 First match played at The Oval. 1846 The All-England XI, organised by William Clarke, begins playing matches, often against odds, throughout the country. 1849 First Yorkshire v Lancashire match. 1850 Wicket-keeping gloves first used. 1850 John Wisden bowls all ten batsmen in an innings for North v South. 1853 First mention of a champion county: Nottinghamshire. 1858 First recorded instance of a hat being awarded to a bowler taking three wickets with consecutive balls. 1859 First touring team to leave England, captained by George Parr, draws enthusiastic crowds in the US and Canada. 1864 Overhand bowling authorised by MCC. John Wisden's The Cricketer's Almanack first published. 1868 Team of Australian aborigines tour England. 1873 WG Grace becomes the first player to record 1,000 runs and 100 wickets in a season. First regulations restricting county qualifications, often regarded as the official start of the County Championship. 1877 First Test match: Australia beat England by 45 runs in Melbourne. 1880 First Test in England: a five-wicket win against Australia at The Oval. 1882 Following England's first defeat by Australia in England, an "obituary notice" to English cricket in the Sporting Times leads to the tradition of The Ashes. 1889 South Africa's first Test match. Declarations first authorised, but only on the third day, or in a one-day match. 1890 County Championship officially constituted. Present Lord's pavilion opened. 1895 WG Grace scores 1,000 runs in May, and reaches his 100th hundred. 1899 AEJ Collins scores 628 not out in a junior house match at Clifton College, the highest individual score in any match. Selectors choose England team for home Tests, instead of host club issuing invitations. 1900 Six-ball over becomes the norm, instead of five. 1909 Imperial Cricket Conference (ICC - now the International Cricket Council) set up, with England, Australia and South Africa the original members. 1910 Six runs given for any hit over the boundary, instead of only for a hit out of the ground. 1912 First and only triangular Test series played in England, involving England, Australia and South Africa. 1915 WG Grace dies, aged 67. 1926 Victoria score 1,107 v New South Wales at Melbourne, the record total for a first-class innings. 1928 West Indies' first Test match. AP "Tich" Freeman of Kent and England becomes the only player to take more than 300 first-class wickets in a season: 304. 1930 New Zealand's first Test match. Donald Bradman's first tour of England: he scores 974 runs in the five Ashes Tests, still a record for any Test series. 1931 Stumps made higher (28 inches not 27) and wider (nine inches not eight - this was optional until 1947). 1932 India's first Test match. Hedley Verity of Yorkshire takes ten wickets for ten runs v Nottinghamshire, the best innings analysis in first-class cricket. 1932-33 The Bodyline tour of Australia in which England bowl at batsmen's bodies with a packed leg-side field to neutralise Bradman's scoring. 1934 Jack Hobbs retires, with 197 centuries and 61,237 runs, both records. First women's Test: Australia v England at Brisbane. 1935 MCC condemn and outlaw Bodyline. 1947 Denis Compton of Middlesex and England scores a record 3,816 runs in an English season. 1948 First five-day Tests in England. Bradman concludes Test career with a second-ball duck at The Oval and a batting average of 99.94 - four runs short of 100. 1952 Pakistan's first Test match. 1953 England regain the Ashes after a 19-year gap, the longest ever. 1956 Jim Laker of England takes 19 wickets for 90 v Australia at Manchester, the best match analysis in first-class cricket. 1957 Declarations authorised at any time. 1960 First tied Test, Australia v West Indies at Brisbane. 1963 Distinction between amateur and professional cricketers abolished in English cricket. The first major one-day tournament begins in England: the Gillette Cup. 1969 Limited-over Sunday league inaugurated for first-class counties. 1970 Proposed South African tour of England cancelled: South Africa excluded from international cricket because of their government's apartheid policies. 1971 First one-day international: Australia v England at Melbourne. 1975 First World Cup: West Indies beat Australia in final at Lord's. 1976 First women's match at Lord's, England v Australia. 1977 Centenary Test at Melbourne, with identical result to the first match: Australia beat England by 45 runs. Australian media tycoon Kerry Packer, signs 51 of the world's leading players in defiance of the cricketing authorities. 1978 Graham Yallop of Australia wears a protective helmet to bat in a Test match, the first player to do so. 1979 Packer and official cricket agree peace deal. 1980 Eight-ball over abolished in Australia, making the six-ball over universal. 1981 England beat Australia in Leeds Test, after following on with bookmakers offering odds of 500 to 1 against them winning. 1982 Sri Lanka's first Test match. 1991 South Africa return, with a one-day international in India. 1992 Zimbabwe's first Test match. Durham become the first county since Glamorgan in 1921 to attain firstclass status. 1993 The ICC ceases to be administered by MCC, becoming an independent organisation with its own chief executive. 1994 Brian Lara of Warwickshire becomes the only player to pass 500 in a firstclass innings: 501 not out v Durham. 2000 South Africa's captain Hansie Cronje banned from cricket for life after admitting receiving bribes from bookmakers in match-fixing scandal. Bangladesh's first Test match. County Championship split into two divisions, with promotion and relegation. The Laws of Cricket revised and rewritten. 2001 Sir Donald Bradman dies, aged 92. 2003 Twenty20 Cup, a 20-over-per-side evening tournament, inaugurated in England. 2004 Lara becomes the first man to score 400 in a Test innings, against England. 2005 The ICC introduces Powerplays and Supersubs in ODIs, and hosts the inaugural Superseries. 2006 Pakistan forfeit a Test at The Oval after being accused of ball tampering.

Who has topped JEE Mains 2018?

Bhogi suraj krishna has secured AIR -1 in JEE MAINS 2018, he scored 350 out of 360 in one of the most prestigious exams of india . In an interview with Careers 360 he shared some of information regarding his past life and JEE preparation . After reading his interview let me share something about topper of JEE 2018 He is from Andra pradesh and he completed his schooling from the same state . He took coaching from Sri Chaitanya - a renowed institute for JEE preparation . He shared that in the beginning of 9th standard he realized that he want to become an IITian and in order to achieve his goal he started preparing for JEE from 9th standard, he joined a foundation coarse in Sri Chaitanya which nurtured him with both JEE and boards preparation . He stated that” there is no huge difference between JEE and boards the only difference between them is that one is subjective and the other one is objective, if your concepts are clear then you will not face any problem in any of these exam”. He also shared that he used to study for 9 hours a day and also he sacrificed his passion for movies during this preparation period .He said that emphasis should be levied on time management as well as it is one of the vital aspects of JEE MAINS exam . At the end he wrapped up by saying that enjoy your journey, chase your dreams and keep faith in your hardwork.

When I lay in rest

And now the cycle again, Turns on when, I lay in rest Under the almond blossoms, in the chest.   I travel back through the narrow lanes, Of my mind Into the chuckles and games- That I find In my innocent face, Away from the tracks of race. When I longed for the moon, That I thought, would catch soon. When the only jealousy I had, Was for the doll of that lad.   I never knew When my jealousy grew, From the lad’s doll To the achievements of all. I never knew When my wishes turned, From the moon to the money I earned. I never knew When my innocent face, Slyly depicted a life of race.   Descending down to a child again My tired body gave me aches and pain. My wishes were again childish then, For my son’s love like the moon of the heaven. My talks were chuckles and works as games, Throwing myself into my childhood days, But then my childish heart stopped in its old body, Leading me to this grassy lane Where the perpetual cycles turns on again.


Undying love The trees, the trunks covered with moss Loquacious birds chirping for a cause The bubbling music of a stream Like the holy river of a realm Canopies of flowers hanging about Haze of buttery sunshine shining out Nutty aroma of the rodents beneath Air flittering greenly through the leaves Insects buzzing noisily all around Hearing an occasional scowl of a hound The glided air, the wet ferns The teasing breeze, its strange turns The unknown path here in woods Searching explorers as if they could Pattering like footsteps across the matted earthen floor Words of newness, the rain did bore The divine nature, its true grace Disappearing with the coming days Nature’s undying love will cease to be With the doom of it’s every tree.        

mysql interview questiones

The document attatched below gives a brief about DATABASE TECHNOLOGY by Krishhna kumar.r. The topics discussed are SQL Statements, View, Store Procedure/Functions, Triggers, Example of Object-Oriented Relational DB, etc.