The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth's surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation). By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere. Air content and atmospheric pressure vary at different layers, and air suitable for use in photosynthesis by terrestrial plants and breathing of terrestrial animals is found only in Earth's troposphere and in artificial atmospheres. The atmosphere has a mass of about 5.15×1018 kg, three-quarters of which is within about 11 km (6.8 mi; 36,000 ft) of the surface. The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space. The Kármán line, at 100 km (62 mi), or 1.57% of Earth's radius, is often used as the border between the atmosphere and outer space. Atmospheric effects become noticeable during atmospheric reentry of spacecraft at an altitude of around 120 km (75 mi). Several layers can be distinguished in the atmosphere, based on characteristics such as temperature and composition.
10 Disruptive Technologies
10 disruptive technologies Renewable solar energy providing electricity by electrifying households through off grid renewable energy sources at affordable cost. This also helps in development of various sections of the society. Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MLvsoogqWcQ Virtual classroom Virtual classroom can help students study different courses by the best faculties in their own location. Also, with virtual classes one can see the recorded videos later to go through the course again later. These technology can also help in studying with various nationality and getting to know about their views. Link: https://www.devry.edu/on-campus-online/virtual-classroom-technology.html 3D printing houses Houses can be built in a day at an affordable rate for mass using additive manufacturing technology. Link: https://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/countingthecost/2018/07/printing-homes-3d-printed-houses-change-world-180722081917866.html Medical Health watch Medical health watch uses variety of medical sensors to provide information about various health indicator. This can be done by mapping the device by app on smartphones. It can also suggest a person about his illness through some alerts. Link: https://www.reuters.com/video/2017/11/17/medical-watch-uses-ai-to-monitor-health?videoId=372998511 Robotics in surgery Robots can be used to conduct complicated surgery. This can be helpful to prevent unnecessary accidents through human in surgery. Also the surgery can be done by a doctor by assisting a robot from faraway places. Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vb79-_hGLkc Blockchain technology A blockchain is a growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked using cryptography. Blockchains which are readable by the public are widely used by cryptocurrencies. Link: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/tech/internet/how-blockchain-will-fundamentally-change-our-lives-in-future/articleshow/63229938.cms Virtual Reality Virtual reality has the scope to change the way people enjoy. This technology has capability to get compatible with various devices like smartphones, PlayStation, etc. This will enable users to engage with different situation in a real time basis. Link: https://www.information-age.com/future-virtual-reality-123461990/ Hydroponic farming Faming can be done various places as no soil is required for it. The productivity level can be much higher than the normal farming practices. Only the right ingredients in terms of nutrient and environment are required to help grows in an effective manner. Link: https://home.howstuffworks.com/lawn-garden/professional-landscaping/hydroponics2.htm Shopping without cashier points – A technology like driverless cars where Just Walk Out Technology automatically detects when products are taken from or returned to the shelves and keeps track of them in a virtual cart. This improves customer by providing hassle free shopping experience. Link: https://www.amazon.com/b?ie=UTF8&node=16008589011 Flying taxis Flying taxis can be operated in an unmanned manner by providing the pickup and drop location as currently done in uber or ola app. This can reduce the burdens on roads. Link: https://www.cnbc.com/video/2017/02/17/this-is-dubais-new-flying-taxi.html’