Exercise with empty stomach, good or bad?
Asthe amount of fitness information available is getting bigger, the chances of being exposed to bad advice are also growing, creating more fitness myths than ever. Yet, one of the most debatable myths that has been out there forever is the myth of working out on an empty stomach. It has been a prevailing thought for decades that you shouldn’t eat or drink prior to working out, and it seems that only recently the public has started questioning its accuracy. All research considered, a fed workout actually has more scientifically proven benefits to overall health, fitness, weight loss, and workout performance, as opposed to fasted training. It may seem like fasted training aids in body fat loss, but in the long run, it actually has counterproductive effects, as the body starts to store fat and burn less calories as a precaution. Additionally, the studies show far greater and longer effects on burning body fat with fed training than those of a fasted. Moreover, the decreased appetite shown in groups who performed fed training is another reason for people who want to shed some weight to enjoy a light meal before a workout in order to prevent later cravings. Finally, for reaching new higher goals in fitness and training, a fed workout is again a much more productive option, since the calories provide enough energy for extra effort.
Bullet Train: A Dream or Reality?
Bullet Train: A Dream or Reality? In the world today, pollution is a major problem. But, with the rise of new technologies, we hope to diminish this problem forever. New inventions are on the way to tackle this major problem. Some have already been introduced, such as hybrid cars, electric scooters and other electrical machines. A big contribution to pollution is the smoke from today’s cars and buses. But thanks to a new and efficient way of transportation, that will decrease the smoke emitted by them: the electric bullet train. A bullet train is a high-speed train that is shaped like bullet, sounds childish, but in a layman’s way we can shape the definition of bullet train in this form. Bullet trains are streamlined so that they can travel faster. Electrically powered bullet trains offer amazing benefits: a quiet, high-speed mode of mass transportation with low environmental dangers. In Japan, bullet trains are known as shinkansen the world's first truly high speed locomotive. Japan’s train travel offers the fastest point to point service of any rail line in the world. But the best addition of the trains in Japan is not their speed but their frequency, there are about 6 train stops in an hour; therefore, you are never being late for your train and be just early for the next one. Since bullet trains are effective way of transportation being that it is fast almost noiseless, non-polluting and luxurious, Prime Minister Narendra Modi proposed the first bullet train in India for Ahmedabad-Mumbai link covering 534 kilometres at about 300 kilometres per hour speed. Embracing the idea of bullet trains means that the Railways will rid itself of a lobby that has always advocated enhancing Train speed with minor changes. In 2009, Railways vision 2020 document reiterated the need for High Speed Rail corridor but the wide range of speed 250 km to 350 km an hour for the proposed bullet trains cast doubts if they would stay true to character. The fastest train in India now is the Shatabdi which runs at 140 km per hour, the record was previously held by Rajdhani Express which clocks at a speed of 130 km per hour. The world has moved on, with France, Spain, China, Germany, Italy, South Korea and Japan boosting trains that zip at 300 km per hour. India, in sharp contrast, has been stuck in a time warp for decades. Bullet trains are very efficient in resource utilisation, be it time, money land or energy. The lower limit of the proposed High Speed Rail is about 300 km/h which is much higher than the allowed Road speed limit in India. High Speed Rail can accommodate more passengers at far higher speeds than automobiles. A typical passenger rail carries 2.83 times as many passengers per hour metre width as a road. In many countries, example Germany and China high speed Railways share tracks with freight trains. This can help move around goods faster. Even if the tracks are not shared the high speed network will free capacity for rail freight on the conventional network. As more goods are moving faster, it helps the common man by bringing down the prices and empower businesses to scale and speed. An investment in high speed trains will increase efficiency, will be environment friendly, will be economically profitable, will empower the businesses and the common man. However, this won’t be easy. Sure there are and will be challenges. There will be challenges regarding the traffic optimisation, finances, construction, land acquisition and many more. But we can overcome them. We have done this time and again. We have succeeded on several challenging initiatives, and few years down the line- this will potentially be just another such success.
Guinea in your home
1. Buying Your Cavy From a Pet Store Unfortunately this is a huge mistake that happens far too often. You go into a pet store and see a piggy that makes your heart melt, and then see that it's crammed into a small aquarium with four other guinea pigs. Your initial thought is that if you buy this special pig, you'll be rescuing it, and therefore it's a good thing you chose to buy a guinea pig at a pet store. Really, the best thing you can do is to actively avoid supporting that pet store so that hopefully some day it won't exist and those animals won't be treated that way, especially when there are literally thousands of guinea pigs in shelters that need homes. Supporting pet stores that mistreat animals is the perfect example of an easily avoidable, but all-too-common mistake for new owners. The "cages" they use are usually aquariums that aren't big enough for even one pig, but often house three or more at a time. These practices are no secret and have been a problem for years. If you are interested in owning a guinea pig, the best thing to do is to adopt. A rescue that is specific to small pets like guinea pigs will know how to care for a cavy more than any pet store will, guaranteed. Guinea pigs that come from pet stores aren't cared for as well, and are likely in a worse state of health. Your local rescue will also be able to answer any question under the sun regarding your newfound pet, which might not be true of the 17-year-old working at the pet store. Another good thing about adopting? You can easily find cagemates, so it eliminates the entire "introducing a new pig" dilemma. My guinea pigs are brothers who have been cagemates for life, and I received a two-for-one special because the woman who rescued them knows how important it is for cagemates to stay together. Her husband was a vet, so I knew that when I adopted these two baby boars, they would be at optimal health. After over three years, we still stay in touch and she asks how they are doing from time to time. You can't find that kind of care in a store. But what if you want a young guinea? Don't worry, there are thousands of guinea pigs of all different ages waiting for homes at shelters and rescues (and don't rule the mature pigs out until you meet them). If you assume that you can only get a fresh new guinea at a pet store, you might want to think again. 2. Assuming That Guinea Pigs Are Fine Without Cagemates This is another common misconception about guinea pigs. A lot of people think that owning just one pig is fine, and that it doesn't need a friend. This may be true if you have enough time to give it the attention it's lacking from a cagemate, but most people have jobs or school. Imagine if you were left to spend an entire day in a confined space. Would you survive? Of course, but it'd be a lot better if you had a friend with you. Guinea pigs are very social animals. They are also a prey animal, so no matter how many hours you spend hanging out with your guinea pig, I'm sorry but your guinea pig would still rather hang out with another guinea pig. Humans are scary to piggies, while other piggies are protection. "Ew but two guinea pigs would smell so much more!" No, not really. If you have an appropriately sized cage for two pigs, your cage will not smell any worse than your current cage does. I've owned one pig; now I own two, and I don't notice a difference in odor at all. What I did notice is that it is much more fun to have two pigs than just one. Why? Because watching them interact, seeing their differences in personalities, and catching them cuddling together is much more rewarding than looking at one pig with a blank look on its face who is terrified of me. 3. Buying a Cage That Is Too Small If you bought a cage from a pet store, it's probably too small. Even if you splurged on the biggest cage in the store that cost over $100, not only is your cage probably still not big enough, but you also wasted a ton of money. The best way to ensure that you are getting an appropriate cage for your cavy is to build your own guinea pig cage. This is much easier than it sounds and much more cost effective than trying to buy a cage that is big enough. For the price you paid for your cage from the pet store, you could have built what's known as a C&C cage triple the size. The C&C stand for cube (the wire storage cubes you can assemble with plastic connectors) and coroplast (corrugated plastic). Some may look at an appropriate cage for a guinea pig and think that it is way too big, but if you look at how an average-sized guinea pig compares to the size of an average store-bought cage, you can see it'd be like keeping a hamster in a shoebox. Would you keep a hamster in a cage the size of a shoebox? Just because it can turn around and take five steps doesn't mean it's an acceptable size. Exercise is a necessity for the longevity of guinea pigs, just as it is in all other living things. If a Labrador was kept in a pen that was only big enough for it to take a few steps each day, most would consider it animal abuse, so why is it okay to give that same treatment to a guinea pig? An Example Of A Bad Cage Petsmart says this cage is a "perfectly sized home for your guinea pig". Not only is this cage less than half the size it should be, the $60 you would have spent buying it could have built you a C&C cage in the right size, with cash to spare. | Source An Example Of A Good Cage Choosing to build a C&C cage means the sky's the limit to all different types of customizations. This is a 2x4 C&C cage that my piggies Wilson and Apollo currently share. | Source Cage Size Guidelines # Of Guinea Pigs Minimum Size Acceptable Preferred Size In C&C Grids 1 7.5 Sq Ft more 2x3 grids 2 7.5 Sq Ft 10.5 Sq Ft 2x4 grids 3 10.5 Sq Ft 13 Sq Ft 2x5 grids 4 13 Sq Ft more 2x6 grids If you have male guinea pigs, the preferred size acts as more of a requirement than a suggestion. Boars often tend to fight more, and therefore require more space to have alone time. A rule of thumb is basically the bigger the cage, the happier the pet. 4. Neglecting Nutrition This is probably the most important thing to get right when raising a guinea pig. As with any other living thing, nutrition for guinea pigs is not something to take lightly. Follow these guidelines to ensure you're doing everything you can for your piggy's diet: Pellets: Dry food, or pellets, come in all different types, brands, and prices. Most of the pellets you will find in stores are ones that should be avoided. This articlegives an in-depth discussion on what to look for, and what not to look for in guinea pig pellets. Popular brands used by guinea pig experts include Oxbow Cavy Cuisine (my favorite, which can be found cheaper online than it can in stores), and pellets sold by KMS Hayloft. Hay: Your guinea pig needs an unlimited supply of hay at all times. Oh, the wonders of hay—guinea pigs need it for many reasons. Their digestive systems require a high-fiber diet in order to keep things running smoothly, if you catch my drift. Not only that, but their teeth are constantly growing, and chewing hay keeps the growth of their molars under control. Piggies love to eat hay, sleep in hay, play with hay—everything. If a guinea pig made a Valentine's Day card, it would be to hay. When you purchase your pig's new best friend, look for second-cut Timothy hay. Second-cut means that it's the second cut of the season—the first cut tends to be tough, so you want the second, more tender, batch—and Timothy hay is a type of grass grown specifically for hay. You can get hay in stores (not the best option), online (much better option), or from a trusted local Timothy-hay farmer (the best!). Start stocking up and spoiling your pig with ample amounts of hay; it will be greatly appreciated. Fruits & Veggies: Guinea pigs should get a wide range of different fruits and vegetables every day. It can be fun to see what different fruits and vegetables your pig prefers. My pigs' absolute favorite vegetables are carrots. Follow this detailed nutrition chart from a popular guinea pig website to see what vegetables and fruits are acceptable, as well as appropriate serving sizes. A Few Additional Tips Sugar-filled, wacky-flavored, colorful guinea pig treats are not good. There are probably appropriate treats through brands such as Oxbow, but a general rule of thumb is that if you aren't positive about how good it is for your pig, don't buy it. Some people try to sell hay balls that go in your cage and act as a movable hay rack. These have been known to be very dangerous to pigs because piggies get their little feet stuck inside them. If a pellet food looks delicious to you, it's most likely bad for your pig. Look for plain pellets. Avoid any with mixes of seeds, nuts, and weird-colored shapes. Never feed your pet iceberg lettuce. It is not nutritious and can cause diarrhea. The greener the leaf, the healthier the lettuce. Salt wheels = bad. If you feed your pig high-quality food such as Oxbow, it already has enough sodium in its diet. 5. Using the Wrong Guinea Pig Bedding One of the most common types of bedding used in guinea pig cages is in the form of wood shavings or paper-based bedding. This is completely fine if you are using the appropriate kind (not pine, cedar, or sawdust). However, wood shavings may not be the best choice for the health of your piggy. Small bits of wood, paper, or dust inhaled by a guinea pig may cause respiratory problems or bother its sensitive eyes. Wood shavings and paper-based bedding can be kicked around easily, and isn't the cleanest option because your guinea pig will be living in its own waste until you completely clean the cage. Although many people use wood- and paper-based bedding, it isn't a very eco-friendly choice, and it can get crazy expensive. This leads me to my next tip: the magic of using fleece bedding. Fleece is a newer bedding option that has been sweeping the cavy nation. It is cheaper than any other option and more eco-friendly. Using fleece allows you to "spot clean" your cage daily, so your piggy can literally live in a poo-free world if you want. Instead of absorbing urine like paper or wood bedding would do, thus becoming soggy, fleece allows it to pass straight through (underneath the fleece, you should have two layers of a towel or something similar that you will have to wash periodically), so the top layer is left completely dry to the touch. It doesn't hurt that cleanup's a snap and your cage looks better either.
Below attatched are the notes of electromagnetics that include topics such as Plane Electromagnetic Waves, Plane waves, Poynting vector & power flow in EM fields, Plane waves in various media, etc. The notes are useful for students who want to study electromagnetics as a subject.
Operational Research is one such subject you will find least material about. Rare courses have this subject in graduation but in post graduation one or two papers of this subject stands compulsory. I have attached here syllabus of OR at graduation level so as to give the idea of topics which forms the base of the subject and also the most recommended book by Handy A.Taha . It has ever growing scope if one can be well versed in it then there are higher chances of opportunities than all the other conventional fields like Maths, computer science.
Questions to ask
New relationships are always fun and exciting, full of life and an undying desire to get to know one another. Once you’ve been together for a little while, you become really comfortable with each other and little things, such as the need to ask each other questions, begin to die down a bit. Keep that spark going in your relationship! It’s totally necessary and shows that you are still interested in that “honeymoon” stage that is ultimately the beginning of a new relationship. Sometimes it’s just good to have a cute Q&A sesh, whether you’re really trying to get to know the boy on a more intimate level or are just trying to be cute with one another! If you are in need of some cute questions to ask your boyfriend, here’s a whole list! Cute and Romantic Questions 1.What does it feel like to you when we hold each other? 2 When did you first realize you loved / liked me? 3 What is your first thought in the morning when you wake up next to me? 4 If we got married someday, where would you want to take me on a honeymoon? 5 If I had to move really far, would you stay in a long distance relationship with me? 6 How do you feel when we’re apart? 7 Do you believe in love at first sight? 8 Do you believe in soulmates? 9 Do you think we’re soulmates? 10 Would you meet my parents? 11 Would you introduce me to your parents? 12 Would you shout my name to the world? 13 Everything happens for a reason—why do you think we met? 14 What was your very first impression of me when you first saw me? 15 What was your first impression of me when we actually met? 16 Do you remember the day we met? 17 What was the first thing that you noticed about me that made you feel attracted? 18 How would you describe our first kiss? 19 At what point did you decide that you wanted us to be “official?” 20 Is there a song that you think of when you think of me? 21 Why do you like / love me? 22 If I had to move away really far, would you come with me? Flirty Questions 1 How many times did you want to kiss me before our actual first kiss? 2 Do you like kissing in the dark or kissing in the rain more? 3 How would you describe the way I kiss? 4 What is your favorite physical feature of mine? 5 What do you see when you close your eyes kissing me? 6 Do you like to cuddle? 7 Would you rather hug for 5 seconds or kiss for 1 second? 8 Would you kiss me on the nose? 9 Would you kiss me on the forehead? 10 Would you hold my hand in public? 11Would you kiss me in public? 12 Do you like when I touch your face? 13 Where is your favorite place to be kissed? 14 Where is your favorite place to kiss me? 15 Where is your favorite place to be massaged? 16 Would you ever go skinny dipping with me? 17 Would you ever take a bath with me? 18 Would you kiss me on the wrist? 19 Would you kiss me on the neck? Cute Questions to Get Him Talking About You 1 If you could describe me with 3 words, what would they be? 2 What is your favorite pet name for me? 3 How would you describe the way I smell? 4 What's something I do, that I don't realize I do, that you love? 5 Is there anything you dislike about me? 6 What is a quirky thing about me that you love? 7 Would you ever write a song for me? 8 Would you ever write a poem about me? 9 Would you take a break from your favorite hobby to spend time with me? 10 Do you get butterflies when you read my notes? 11 Does it make you smile when I send you a text message? 12 Have you ever had a dream about me? 13 What is your favorite dream that involved me? 14 What is your favorite memory of me so far? 15 If I was really sad, what would you do to cheer me up? 16 If I looked completely different, would you still love me? 17 Would you risk your life to save mine? 18 Do I make you happy? 19 Do I make you want to reach your fullest potential? 20 Do I make you want a future with me? 21 Do you think I’m cute? 22 Do you think I’m pretty? 23 Do you think I look cute even when playing tomboy sports? 24 Would you take me out to see a chick flick? 25 If I was scared, would you hold me? 26 Do I look cute while working out? 27 If we are watching a scary movie, can I hide my eyes and cuddle you close? 28 Would you take my hand to dance, even if nobody else was on the dance floor? 29 What kind of flower would describe me? 30 Would you ever take me out on a picnic under the stars? 31If I was a dessert, what would I be and why? 32 Would you give me a piggyback ride if my feet hurt? 33 What outfit of mine do you like the most? Questions to Get Him Talking About Himself 1 When you’re alone, do you think about me? 2 Am I the kind of girl you’d take home to your parents? 3 Do you have any secrets you’d share with me? 4 Do you talk about me when you’re with your friends? 5 If your friends told you to dump me, how would you react? 6 Would it embarrass you if I called you a pet name in front of your friends? 7 If you caught another guy trying to pick me up, what would you do or say? 8 Has a sad movie ever made you cry? 9 What is your ideal date? 10 If you have a vision of the perfect date to take me on, what is it like? 11 Do you prefer that I make the first move? 12 Do you mean it when you say you love me? 13 Does it mean a lot to you when I say I love you? 14 Does it make you feel good when I tell you how cute you are? 15 What is your fondest childhood memory? 16 How old were you when you had your first kiss? 17 Do you prefer a date watching movies at home, snuggled up on the couch, or out at the movie theater? 18 If I were to make you breakfast, what would you want it to be? 19 If I were to cook you dinner, what would make you the happiest? 20 Would you ever dress up for no reason and just dance with me anywhere, even an empty parking lot? 21 How would you describe your family? 22 Do you think your family will like me too? 23 Would you enjoy a hot air balloon ride over a pretty terrain? 24 What would be your ideal vacation with me? 25 Do you let me win games? 26 If you didn’t win anything in a carnival game, would you try again? 27 Would you rather take me camping or on a tropical vacation? 28 Would you rather go on a road trip with me or with friends? 29 Would you ever take me on a trip with you and your friends? 30 What things do I do that make you blush? 31 Would you prefer to lay on a beach with me to get a tan or get playful in the water? 32 When was a time that you laughed the hardest? 33 What’s the craziest thing you’ve ever done? 34 What’s the craziest thing you’d do for me? 35 Is there anything that I’d be surprised to find in your bedroom? 36 Who’s your celebrity crush? 37 Who knows you the best? 38 What’s your best feature? 39 What’s your favorite piece of clothing? 40 How can you tell that you’re going to be friends with someone? 41 What’s your favorite thing about traveling? Deep Questions 1 Have you ever been in love before? 2What does love mean to you? 3 What does being together mean to you? 4 What do you want out of being together? 5 What do you like about us as a couple? 6 What do you want to change about us as a couple? 7 What’s something you’re afraid to tell me? 8 What is something you want to know about me? 9 What, to you, is the most important thing in life? 10 Do you have any regrets? 11 What’s something that you want to change about yourself? 12 What is something I can help you with? 13 What is your biggest fear? 14 How do you know you’re doing the right thing with your life? 15 Would you change anything about your life, if you could? 16 When was a time you were deeply hurt? 17 What was one of the best moments of your life? 18 Tell me about your (best friend, parents, siblings). What’s your relationship with them like? 19 When do you feel appreciated the most? 20 What are your dealbreakers? Random Fun Questions 1 If we were stranded on an island with no food, would you hunt to help us survive? 2 If there was only one cookie left, would you give it to me? 3 If there was only one cookie left, would you share it? 4 If you could feed me a dessert, what would you pick? 5 If I could be your passenger in any car or vehicle, what would it be? 6 Would you rather race me on a jet ski or have me on the back of yours? 7 What would the title of your autobiography be? 8 If you could have any kind of cake made for you in any size, shape, or color, what would it be? 9 You have three wishes from a genie. Go! 10 If you could go back in time, but only to last week, what moment would you visit and why? 11 Hotdog or hamburger? 12 Cookie dough or cookies? 13 Ice cream or milkshake? 14 Coffee or tea? 15 You can only wear one thing for the rest of your life. What do you choose? 16 If you could choose to be talented with words, music, or dance, what would you choose? 17 What celebrity most resembles me? 18 If you could go anywhere right now, where would you go? 19 If money were no object, what would you have for breakfast every day? 20 Would you rather live in a cave or under the sea? 21 You just found five dollars on the ground. What do you do? 22 If you could throw anything against a brick wall, what would it be?
Engineering Drawing can supply all the information needed with the exactness and details required. It is therefore, one of the principal functions of drawing to convey ideas from the design engineer to the fabricator. Hence, the skill to interpret and construct engineering sketches and drawings is of paramount importance. Study these concepts throughly and broaden your knowledge.
Online Learning Courses and Beyond
Online Learning Courses and Beyond The development of the World Wide Web has greatly influenced the way people live their lives, from doing daily errands like sending out mail to studying like going to the library for research. By using the World Wide Web, people can simply send mail or research about any topic they can imagine with just the click of a button in real-time. Perhaps one of the industries significantly affected by the development of the World Wide Web is Education. In recent years, the Internet has provided us with online education courses offering a variety of programs. The arrival of online training courses on the education scene was inevitable. As people's lives have become active with so many things to do, the convenience of distance education courses has made it possible for home learners and adults busy at work to take up a class during their spare time. With the continued development of technology, we can certainly expect better things for online education classes. What to Expect From Online Training Courses? 1. Better quality of course and content of online learning courses as the implementation of learning management systems for the assessment and evaluation of e-learners is expected. A learning management system can identify the best content for a particular student based on the student's measured abilities. The appropriate learning techniques are then employed thus propelling the student to success. Students can also look forward to additional course offerings. 2. Improved pedagogic strategies will lead to better and more effective instructional materials that are at par with the quality of those offered in higher education institutions. 3. More dynamic interaction between the instructor and the e-learner through the use of educational technology tools. The teacher can never be truly replaced by the online learning environment. However, with the aid of educational technology tools, students and teachers will be stimulated by real-time collaboration. 4. Flexible Learning Experience unlike in traditional classrooms and colleges online education classes are flexible in schedule handling. Having a fulltime day job is possible if enrolled in an online program. This method of learning gives students the power to choose their learning time according to preferred schedule. A blended learning environment could conceivably be the next frontier in online learning. The use of web 2.0 collaborative tools like social networking sites, wikis and blogs as well as video conferencing would be used in conjunction with eBooks that offer multimedia content. The delivery of content in multiple modalities would provide students the opportunity to engage with others in a flexible learning environment. Excellent, quality online education courses deliver top notch graduates. Distance education institutions provide online learning study equipping students with the best knowledge for better career opportunity and advancement. by:Mohit Gedar
Life after death
Can the Dead Think? Can a dead brain think and react to external stimuli? Until now, this possibility had been the realm of science fiction and horror movies. However, a recent peer-reviewed study has shown that brains which had been preserved in formaldehyde and alcohol for as long as twenty years after they had been removed from their body, still reacted to external stimuli in much the same way a living brain would. What’s more, these pickled brains showed cerebral activity nearly identical to that of living brains in the area of the brain most associated with personality, a sense of self, and core memories, which suggests the perseverance of some residue of the person deep inside a disembodied brain. Science vs. Popular Culture The idea that a severed brain floating in a specimen jar could still think and act has been a mainstay of Futurama, which features President Nixon and other celebrities leading a sort of afterlife in large mobile glass jars. It has also been the foundation of the current zombie craze in movies, television, and books, all of which are based on the idea that the unusually hungry undead are animated by a brain which has someone maintained at least a little activity following the demise of its owner. In the entertainment universe, there is no consensus on how a dead brain could still make its corpse body lumber about in search of human prey. Some movies such as Romero’s Night of the Living Dead, left the question completely unanswered, though the fact that those who had been bitten by a zombie came back to life as flesh-eating zombies suggested some sort of infectious agent. In the Walking Dead, the zombies are said to be animated as a result of some sort of infection, but the process or nature of the pathogen is never clearly explained. The Zombie Survival Guide, by Max Brooks, was the first book to take a “serious” look at how zombie brains might continue to operate, despite the death of the body. According to ZSG, zombie brains had been infected by a virus which preserved the brain and slowed decay, and as a result made away with the need for food, for oxygen, and all of the other things that living brains need. The theory put forth in ZSG seems preposterous and not possible in real life. After all, the brain – like all of our other organs – needs oxygen and nutrients to survive or it begins to break down and decompose. But what if decomposition could be stopped or slowed down, such as when a brain is placed in a preserving solution? The Research Until now, the prevailing wisdom is that even though the visible structures of the dead brain might be preserved by immersing it in alcohol or formaldehyde, the underlying environment was so different from the conditions of life that no brain function could be possible. Except that no one had bothered to test that assumption, at least until now. Starting from the observation that the structure of organs dictates their functions, a team of neurosurgeons set out to ask: if the structure of the brain remains intact, will its function survive? The researchers took a number of brains and parts of brains which had been preserved in embalming fluid, for as long as twenty years, and subjected them to a number of stimuli ranging from electromagnetic, chemical and light. They then measured the brain’s reaction using essentially the same equipment that would be used to measure brain activity in a living brain. The Results The results were both shocking and disturbing. All of the dead brains that were tested, showed reactions nearly identical to the types of reactions that occurred in living brains when the living brains were exposed to the same kind of stimuli. Despite the fact that the dead brains had been without nutrients, without oxygen, and in some cases had been dissected, they continued to function at least on a basic level. What’s more, the activity elicited by these stimuli took place in areas of the brain that were associated with memory, with selfhood, and with personality. The results led the researchers to make to understated but striking conclusions: The precise point beyond which the brain is no longer “living,” a threshold which remains unidentified, is perhaps less definite than has been historically assumed. [T]he post-mortem brain which displays subtle cortical oscillations, particularly within the theta and gamma bands as demonstrated here, could express some capacity for cognitive activation. (Cognitive = thinking.) What Does This All Mean? The study’s results are too new to fully map out all of the implications, but they hint at the survival of some sort of consciousness after death, at least until the brain decays to the point where its structures are no longer intact. Usually, the brain begins to irreversibly decay the moment that a person dies, but in cases where the brain has been preserved, as in the case of specimens in a jar or perhaps even in cryogenic sleep, it is possible that the brain – and perhaps its consciousness – persists. This is both fascinating and horrifying. Have we condemned thousands of brain specimens floating in jars in university labs throughout the world to a kind of half death? Could they be self-aware? Do they dream? Are they trapped forever in between life and death? Could this lead to a way to cheat death, like on Futurama, or does it mean that zombies are possible after all? If some consciousness survives, what does this mean for Einstein’s Brain whose beautiful brain has been preserved for decades in a glass jar? Has he been whiling away the years working on a universal theory of relativity all this time? What would a brain completely devoid of sensory input do? Experiences with people put in isolation chambers suggest that they would start to hallucinate and dream. Perhaps you the reader are floating in a jar, and this article is your own invention, your brain’s way of telling you that all of what you see is just an illusion. Imagine if we could learn to contact and communicate with the brains of the dead? Perhaps they could unlock secrets for us, even solve their murders by telling us who did it, or allow us to eventually re-animate them completely. Perhaps this will lead to a new service offered by funeral homes: preserving the brains of your loved ones and hooking them up to virtual reality so they can continue to enjoy their afterlife. Of course, our meddling with the processes of death might just unleash a zombie apocalypse.
Omens and birds
omens For many centuries, our ancestors looked to nature to bring them important information on their health, love, prosperity, and more. Many of our ancestors relied heavily on the messages that birds brought to them, including Native Americans, the Celts, and many more cultures. Why not use the same methods as our ancestors and listen to what nature has to say to us? In this article, we will learn how to look at birds as omens and signs and how to listen to the messages that they bring to us. We will examine the following birds and meanings: Birds as Omens Crows, ravens, and blackbirds bring news of good passage and protection. Hawks represent clear-sightedness and vision. Owls are birds of ill omen. When a hummingbird hovers nearby it means you are capable of achieving the impossible. A bird in the house means different things depending on the bird and its behavior. When a bird flies in the window you may encounter an obstacle in your life soon. If a bird follows you it wants to be your guardian. Augury is using the flight patterns of birds to answer life questions. Dead birds represent metaphysical death and change. Blackbird Misconceptions There is a misconception about black birds in much of Western society. Why is this? Is it simply because black birds are black and the color black seems to be associated with evil? Or is it due to many years of stereotyping the crow or blackbird to be a witch's familiar? Either way, the black bird omen seems to be one that sticks out in many people's minds when hearing the words "birds as omens". I have to disagree and state that this black bird omen being an ill omen is an incorrect thought. Even the Native American medicine man Bobby Lake Thom who wrote "Spirits of the Earth" states that the black bird always has a message to bring, and it usually is not an ill omen. While the crow or black bird can play the trickster, they are usually benevolent and bring news of good passage and protection. The black bird's reputation as a bad omen is not based in experience or fact. The video below is one that I took of a black bird (I believe it's a Raven, others tell me it's not) fighting off an attacking blue jay. I took this as a good sign and not a black bird omen. I had a great day and an even better week that week that I saw this huge black bird cross my path. I also immediately associated this black bird omen (albeit a good omen) with the god Bran and the goddess Maeve . . . two deities that had been trying to get my attention for quite some time. As much as I love and adore birds in the wild, is there such thing as a bird of ill omen? I absolutely hate admitting this fact, but I have to. I have personally experienced the owl as a bird of ill omen and read about this in medicine men's writings. That was quite difficult for me to admit, as I am a big fan of owls. I find them to be beautiful and majestic creatures. However, every time my owl familiar has shown up at my home, within a week one of my neighbors dies. So in my personal experience, the owl (no matter how lovely) is a bird of ill omen because it brings news of impending death. In Eastern Europe, if an owl lands on a person's roof, it is said to portend a death in the home. Some Native medicine men say that the owl can be work for evil forces to spy on you or perform other evil tasks. Another bird of ill omen, according to some Native American tribes, is the buzzard. While I have no personal experience with buzzards, many find that they bring news of blockages during travel and other aggravating circumstances. Is the buzzard a bird of ill omen to you? Or have they been a bird of protection? Messages can vary from individual to individual. What Does a Dead Bird Symbolize? If you've seen a dead bird in the road, or perhaps accidentally hit a bird, it may feel like a bad sign. It may actually be a good sign, showing you that an end to turmoil or pain is coming. A dead bird doesn't necessarily portend physical death, but metaphorical death. Perhaps you're going through the heartache of a break-up. Perhaps you are struggling to find a job. This dead bird marks the end to your search and struggle. A new beginning is just around the corner.